Particulate Emissions from Vehicles (Wiley-professional Engineering Publishing)

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Particulate Emissions from Vehicles (Wiley-professional Engineering Publishing)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 493 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780470724552
  • DDC分類 629.2528

Full Description


The public health risks posed by automotive particulate emissions are well known. Such particles are sufficiently small to reach the deepest regions of the lungs; and moreover act as carriers for many potentially toxic substances. Historically, diesel engines have been singled out in this regard, but recent research shows the need to consider particulate emissions from gasoline engines as well. Already implicated in more than one respiratory disease, the strongest evidence in recent times points to particle-mediated cardiovascular disorders (strokes and heart attacks). Accordingly, legislation limiting particulate emissions is becoming increasingly stringent, placing great pressure on the automotive industry to produce cleaner vehicles - pressure only heightened by the ever-increasing number of cars on our roads. Particulate Emissions from Vehicles addresses a field of increased international interest and research activity; discusses the impact of new legislation globally on the automotive industry; and explains new ways of measuring particle size, number and composition that are currently under development.The expert analysis and summary of the state-of-the-art, which encompasses the key areas of combustion performance, measurement techniques and toxicology, will appeal to R&D practitioners and engineers working in the automotive industry and related mechanical fields, as well as postgraduate students and researchers of engine technology, air pollution and life/ environmental science. The public health aspects will also appeal to the biomedical research community.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xi
Acronyms and Abbreviations xiii
About the Author xvii
Introduction 1 (8)
Air Traffic 4 (1)
Motor Vehicles 4 (2)
The Legislative Framework 6 (3)
Fundamentals 9 (52)
Introduction 9 (1)
Properties of Aerosol Particles 9 (13)
Diameter and Shape 10 (2)
Size Distribution 12 (2)
Transport and Deposition 14 (4)
Transformation and Mutation 18 (4)
Particles in the Atmosphere 22 (20)
Character and Behaviour 23 (4)
Aerosols in Nature 27 (3)
Anthropogenic Aerosols 30 (7)
Environmental Implications 37 (5)
Motor Vehicle Particulate 42 (13)
Some Typical Particles Dissected 42 (6)
What Happens Within the Engine 48 (3)
What Happens Within the Exhaust 51 (2)
Number Versus Mass 53 (2)
Closure 55 (6)
Properties of Aerosol Particles 55 (2)
Particles in the Atmosphere 57 (1)
Motor Vehicle Particulate 58 (3)
Formation I: Composition 61 (74)
Introduction 61 (1)
Carbonaceous Fraction: I. Classical Models 62 (22)
Empiricisms 65 (3)
Inception 68 (5)
Surface Growth 73 (2)
Agglomeration 75 (4)
Oxidation 79 (5)
Carbonaceous Fraction: II. The Combusting 84 (7)
Plume
Historical Overview 85 (1)
Premixed Burn 86 (2)
Mixing-controlled Burn 88 (2)
Late Burn 90 (1)
Carbonaceous Fraction: III. Wall 91 (4)
Interactions
Theoretical 92 (1)
Experimental 93 (2)
Ash Fraction 95 (9)
Chemical Reactions 96 (4)
Gas-to-Particle Conversion 100 (4)
Organic Fraction 104 (18)
Preparatory Chemical Reactions 104 (5)
Chemical Reactions in the Exhaust 109 (3)
Gas-to-Particle Conversion: Models 112 (5)
Gas-to-Particle Conversion: Measurements 117 (2)
White Smoke 119 (3)
Sulphate Fraction 122 (7)
Chemical Reactions 122 (3)
Gas-to-Particle Conversion 125 (4)
Closure 129 (6)
Carbonaceous Fraction I. Classical 129 (2)
Models
Carbonaceous Fraction II. The 131 (1)
Combusting Plume
Carbonaceous Fraction III. Wall 132 (1)
Interactions
Ash Fraction 132 (1)
Organic Fraction 133 (1)
Sulphate Fraction 134 (1)
Formation II: Location 135 (22)
Introduction 135 (1)
Within the Exhaust System 136 (5)
Storage and Release 137 (2)
Deposition Within Catalysts 139 (2)
Within the Exhaust Plume 141 (4)
Long-term Ageing in the Atmosphere 145 (1)
Within the Transfer Line 145 (2)
Within the Dilution Tunnel 147 (3)
On the Filter 150 (2)
Closure 152 (5)
Within the Exhaust System 152 (1)
Within the Exhaust Plume 153 (1)
Within the Transfer Line 153 (1)
Within the Dilution Tunnel 153 (1)
On the Filter 154 (1)
General Remarks 154 (3)
Measurement 157 (54)
Introduction 157 (1)
Particulate Measured Conventionally 158 (24)
Drawing a Sample of Exhaust Gas 158 (2)
Diluting the Exhaust 160 (5)
Collection onto a Filter 165 (3)
Fractionation by Gasification 168 (3)
Fractionation by Dissolution 171 (4)
Chemically Assaying the Organic Fraction 175 (4)
Biologically Assaying the Organic 179 (3)
Fraction
Particulate Measured Individually 182 (9)
Inertial Mobility 183 (2)
Electrical Mobility 185 (1)
Laser-induced Incandescence 186 (3)
Light Scattering 189 (2)
Particulate Measured Collectively 191 (13)
Photoacousticity 191 (2)
Photoelectric and Diffusion Charging 193 (2)
Electrical Charge 195 (2)
Flame Ionisation 197 (1)
Mass 198 (2)
Smoke 200 (4)
Closure 204 (7)
Particulate Measured Conventionally 204 (2)
Particulate Measured Individually 206 (1)
Particulate Measured Collectively 207 (2)
Further Remarks 209 (2)
Characterisation 211 (38)
Introduction 211 (1)
Physical Characterisation 212 (16)
Microstructure 212 (3)
Morphology 215 (4)
Density 219 (3)
Surface Area 222 (2)
Electrical Charge 224 (4)
Chemical Characterisation 228 (10)
Carbonaceous Fraction 228 (2)
Ash Fraction 230 (3)
Organic Fraction 233 (4)
Sulphate Fraction 237 (1)
Biological Characterisation 238 (2)
Demographic Characterisation 240 (4)
Closure 244 (5)
Physical Characterisation 244 (2)
Chemical Characterisation 246 (1)
Biological Characterisation 246 (1)
Demographic Characterisation 247 (2)
Abatement 249 (64)
Introduction 249 (1)
Fuel Formulation 250 (15)
Sulphur 252 (2)
Hydrocarbons 254 (2)
Oxygenates 256 (5)
Additives 261 (1)
Volatility, Cetane Number and Density 262 (3)
Fuel Injection 265 (6)
The Injector Nozzle 265 (1)
Injection Pressure 266 (3)
Injection Scheduling 269 (2)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation 271 (4)
Induction 275 (4)
External to the Engine 275 (2)
Internal to the Engine 277 (2)
Lubrication 279 (12)
Oil in Particulate 279 (6)
Particulate in Oil 285 (6)
Alternative Combustion Systems 291 (2)
Aftertreatment 293 (13)
Catalytic Converters 294 (6)
Particulate Filters 300 (6)
Closure 306 (7)
Fuel Formulation 306 (2)
Fuel Injection 308 (1)
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) 309 (1)
Induction 309 (1)
Lubrication 310 (1)
Alternative Combustion Systems 310 (1)
Aftertreatment 311 (2)
Gasoline Engines 313 (28)
Introduction 313 (1)
A Historical Perspective 314 (4)
Organometallic Fuel Additives and Ash 314 (3)
Oxidation Catalysts and Sulphates 317 (1)
Port-injection Engines 318 (8)
Formation 319 (3)
Characterisation 322 (3)
Abatement 325 (1)
Direct-injection Engines 326 (8)
Formation 327 (3)
Characterisation 330 (3)
Abatement 333 (1)
Two-stroke Engines 334 (4)
Closure 338 (3)
Port-injection Engines 338 (1)
Direct-injection Engines 339 (1)
Two-stroke Engines 340 (1)
Disintegration 341 (14)
Introduction 341 (1)
Roads 342 (2)
Brakes 344 (2)
Tyres 346 (2)
Exhausts 348 (1)
Catalysts 349 (3)
Closure 352 (3)
Roads 352 (1)
Brakes 353 (1)
Tyres 353 (1)
Exhausts 353 (1)
Catalysts 353 (2)
Toxicology 355 (32)
Introduction 355 (1)
Public Exposure 356 (6)
Nanoparticles 360 (2)
Public Health 362 (2)
Pathogenesis 364 (7)
Particle Deposition and Clearance 364 (3)
The Chemistry and Biochemistry of 367 (2)
Particle-induced Reactions
Particle-induced Diseases 369 (2)
Epidemiology 371 (4)
In Vitro 375 (2)
In Vivo 377 (4)
Humans 381 (1)
Closure 382 (3)
Public Exposure 382 (1)
Public Health 382 (1)
Pathogenesis 382 (1)
Epidemiology 383 (1)
In Vitro 383 (1)
In Vivo 384 (1)
Humans 384 (1)
Which Particulate Fraction? 384 (1)
Healthy Antioxidant Diet 385 (1)
Glossary of Biomedical Terms 385 (2)
Closure 387 (12)
Recommendations for Research 387 (4)
Signal-to-noise Ratios 387 (1)
Statutory Test Cycles and Real Emission 388 (1)
Rates
Inspection and Maintenance 388 (1)
The Soot Sensor in Engine and 388 (1)
Aftertreatment Management
Surface Area Distribution 389 (1)
Instrumentation for Number-based 389 (1)
Legislation
Nanoparticles in Real Exhaust Plumes 389 (1)
(and the Ambient)
How Should Primary and Secondary 390 (1)
Particles Be Demarcated?
Will Gas--particle Partitioning in the 390 (1)
Wider Environment Be Affected?
The Chemical Compositions of Individual 390 (1)
Particles
Toxicity as a Function of Particle Size 390 (1)
Smaller Particles in Larger Numbers; or 391 (4)
Larger Particles in Smaller Numbers
Smaller and Smaller and Smaller 395 (1)
Broader Questions of Policy 396 (3)
Further Reading 399 (2)
Literature Cited (Cross-referenced Against the 401 (84)
Text)
Index 485