グレイの解剖学:学生版<br>Gray's Anatomy for Students (Grays Anatomy for Students)

グレイの解剖学:学生版
Gray's Anatomy for Students (Grays Anatomy for Students)

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Table of Contents

Editorial advisory board                           xviii
Acknowledgments xxii
Dedications xxii
About the book xxiii
Anatomy and imaging
What is anatomy? 2 (3)
How can gross anatomy be studied? 2 (1)
Important anatomical terms 2 (1)
The anatomical position 2 (2)
Anatomical planes 4 (1)
Terms to describe location 4 (1)
Imaging 5 (4)
Diagnostic imaging techniques 5 (1)
Plain radiography 5 (1)
Ultrasound 6 (1)
Doppler ultrasound 6 (1)
Computed tomography 7 (1)
Magnetic resonance imaging 8 (1)
Nuclear medicine imaging 8 (1)
Positron emission tomography 9 (1)
Image interpretation 9 (2)
Plain radiography 9 (1)
Chest radiograph 9 (1)
Abdominal radiograph 9 (1)
Gastrointestinal contrast examinations 10 (1)
Urological contrast studies 10 (1)
Computed tomography 10 (1)
Magnetic resonance imaging 10 (1)
Nuclear medicine imaging 10 (1)
Safety in imaging 11 (3)
Back
Conceptual overview 14 (12)
General description 14 (1)
Functions 14 (1)
Support 15 (1)
Movement 15 (1)
Protection of the central and 16 (1)
peripheral nervous systems
Component parts 17 (1)
Bones 17 (1)
A typical vertebra 17 (1)
Muscles 18 (2)
Vertebral canal 20 (1)
Spinal nerves 21 (1)
Dermatomes and myotomes 21 (1)
Relationship to other regions 22 (1)
Head 22 (1)
Thorax, abdomen, and pelvis 22 (1)
Limbs 22 (2)
Key features 24 (1)
Long vertebral column and short spinal 24 (1)
cord
Intervertebral foramina and spinal 24 (1)
nerves
Innervation of the back 24 (2)
Regional anatomy 26 (63)
Skeletal framework 26 (1)
Vertebrae 26 (1)
Typical vertebra 27 (4)
Cervical vertebrae 31 (2)
Thoracic vertebrae 33 (1)
Lumbar vertebrae 33 (1)
Sacrum 33 (1)
Coccyx 34 (1)
Intervertebral foramina 34 (1)
Posterior spaces between vertebral 34 (4)
arches
Joints 38 (1)
Synovial joints 38 (1)
Descriptions of synovial joints based 39 (1)
on shape and movement
Solid joints 39 (2)
Joints between vertebrae in the back 41 (1)
Symphyses between vertebral bodies 41 (2)
(intervertebral discs)
Joints between vertebral arches
(zygapophysial joints)
Ligaments 43 (1)
Anterior and posterior longitudinal 44 (1)
ligaments
Ligamenta flava 44 (1)
Supraspinous ligament and ligamentum 45 (1)
nuchae
Interspinous ligaments 45 (2)
Back musculature 47 (1)
Superficial group of back muscles 47 (3)
Trapezius 50 (1)
Latissimus dorsi 51 (1)
Levator scapulae 51 (1)
Rhomboid minor and rhomboid major 52 (1)
Intermediate group of back muscles 53 (1)
Deep group of back muscles 54 (1)
Thoracolumbar fascia 55 (1)
Spinotransversales muscles 55 (1)
Erector spinae muscles 56 (2)
Transversospinales muscles 58 (2)
Segmental muscles 60 (1)
Suboccipital muscles 60 (2)
Introduction to the nervous system 62 (1)
Central nervous system 62 (1)
Brain 62 (1)
Spinal cord 62 (6)
Arrangement of structures in the 68 (1)
vertebral canal
Peripheral nervous system 69 (1)
Spinal nerves 69 (1)
Nomenclature of spinal nerves 70 (2)
Functional subdivisions of the CNS 72 (1)
Somatic part of the nervous system 72 (3)
Dermatomes 75 (1)
Myotomes 76 (1)
Visceral part of the nervous system 76 (2)
Sympathetic system 78 (6)
Parasympathetic system 84 (1)
Visceral sensory innervation (visceral 85 (1)
afferents)
The enteric system 85 (2)
Nerve plexuses 87 (1)
Somatic plexuses 87 (1)
Visceral plexuses 88 (1)
Referred pain 88 (1)
Surface anatomy 89 (13)
Back surface anatomy 89 (1)
Absence of lateral curvatures 89 (1)
Primary and secondary curvatures in the 89 (1)
sagittal plane
Useful nonvertebral skeletal landmarks 89 (2)
How to identify specific vertebral 91 (1)
spinous processes
Visualizing the inferior ends of the 92 (1)
spinal cord and subarachnoid space
Identifying major muscles 93 (2)
Clinical cases 95 (3)
10 Short questions 98 (4)
Thorax
Conceptual overview 102 (13)
General description 102 (1)
Functions 103 (1)
Breathing 103 (1)
Protection of vital organs 103 (1)
Conduit 103 (1)
Component parts 103 (1)
Thoracic wall 103 (1)
Superior thoracic aperture 104 (1)
Inferior thoracic aperture 104 (1)
Diaphragm 105 (1)
Mediastinum 106 (1)
Pleural cavities 106 (1)
Relationship to other regions 107 (1)
Neck 107 (1)
Upper limb 108 (1)
Abdomen 108 (1)
Breast 108 (1)
Key features 108 (1)
Vertebral level TIV/V 108 (2)
Venous shunts from left to right 110 (1)
Segmental neurovascular supply of 110 (2)
thoracic wall
Sympathetic system 112 (1)
Flexible wall and inferior thoracic 112 (1)
aperture
Innervation of the diaphragm 112 (3)
Regional anatomy 115 (85)
Pectoral region 115 (1)
Breast 115 (1)
Arterial supply 115 (1)
Venous drainage 115 (1)
Innervation 115 (1)
Lymphatic drainage 116 (1)
Breast in men 116 (1)
Muscles of the pectoral region 117 (1)
Pectoralis major 117 (1)
Subclavius and pectoralis minor 117 (1)
Thoracic wall 118 (1)
Skeletal framework 119 (1)
Thoracic vertebrae 119 (1)
Ribs 120 (2)
Sternum 122 (1)
Joints 123 (2)
Intercostal spaces 125 (2)
Muscles 127 (2)
Arterial supply 129 (2)
Venous drainage 131 (1)
Lymphatic drainage 132 (1)
Innervation 132 (2)
Diaphragm 134 (1)
Arterial supply 135 (1)
Venous drainage 135 (1)
Innervation 135 (1)
Movements of the thoracic wall and 135 (1)
diaphragm during breathing
Pleural cavities 136 (1)
Pleura 136 (1)
Parietal pleura 137 (1)
Visceral pleura 138 (1)
Pleural recesses 139 (1)
Lungs 140 (1)
Root and hilum 140 (1)
Right lung 140 (3)
Left lung 143 (2)
Bronchial tree 145 (1)
Bronchopulmonary segments 146 (1)
Pulmonary arteries 146 (1)
Pulmonary veins 146 (1)
Bronchial arteries and veins 146 (3)
Innervation 149 (1)
Lymphatic drainage 149 (4)
Mediastinum 153 (1)
Middle mediastinum 154 (1)
Pericardium 154 (3)
Heart 157 (23)
Pulmonary trunk 180 (1)
Ascending aorta 181 (1)
Other vasculature 181 (1)
Superior mediastinum 181 (2)
Thymus 183 (1)
Right and left brachiocephalic veins 183 (1)
Left superior intercostal vein 184 (1)
Superior vena cava 184 (2)
Arch of aorta and its branches 186 (1)
Ligamentum arteriosum 187 (1)
Trachea and esophagus 188 (1)
Nerves of the superior mediastinum 188 (2)
Thoracic duct in the superior 190 (2)
mediastinum
Posterior mediastinum 192 (1)
Esophagus 192 (2)
Thoracic aorta 194 (1)
Azygos system of veins 194 (2)
Thoracic duct in the posterior 196 (1)
mediastinum
Sympathetic trunks 197 (2)
Anterior mediastinum 199 (1)
Surface anatomy 200 (20)
Thorax surface anatomy 200 (1)
How to count ribs 200 (1)
Surface anatomy of the breast in women 201 (1)
Visualizing structures at the TIV/V 202 (1)
vertebral level
Visualizing structures in the superior 203 (1)
mediastinum
Visualizing the margins of the heart 203 (1)
Where to listen for heart sounds 204 (1)
Visualizing the pleural cavities and 204 (1)
lungs, pleural recesses, and lung lobes
and fissures
Where to listen for lung sounds 205 (4)
Clinical cases 209 (7)
10 Short questions 216 (4)
Abdomen
Conceptual overview 220 (124)
General description 220 (1)
Functions 221 (1)
Houses and protects major viscera 221 (2)
Breathing 223 (1)
Changes in intra-abdominal pressure 223 (1)
Component parts 224 (1)
Wall 224 (1)
Abdominal cavity 225 (2)
Inferior thoracic aperture 227 (1)
Diaphragm 228 (1)
Pelvic inlet 228 (116)
Surface anatomy 344 (20)
Abdomen surface anatomy 344 (1)
Defining the surface projection of the 345 (1)
abdomen
How to find the superficial inguinal 346 (1)
ring
How to determine lumbar vertebral levels 347 (1)
Visualizing structures at the LI 348 (1)
vertebral level
Visualizing the position of major blood 349 (1)
vessels
Using abdominal quadrants to locate 350 (1)
major viscera
Defining surface regions to which pain 351 (1)
from the gut is referred
Where to find the kidneys 352 (1)
Where to find the spleen 352 (1)
Clinical cases 353 (8)
10 Short questions 361 (3)
Pelvis and perineum
Conceptual overview 364 (15)
General description 364 (1)
Functions 364 (1)
Contain and support bladder, rectum, 364 (1)
anal canal, and reproductive tracts
Anchors the roots of the external 364 (2)
genitalia
Component parts 366 (1)
Pelvic inlet 366 (1)
Pelvic walls 367 (1)
Pelvic outlet 367 (2)
Pelvic floor 369 (1)
Pelvic cavity 369 (3)
Perineum 372 (1)
Relationship to other regions 372 (1)
Abdomen 372 (1)
Lower limb 372 (1)
Key features 373 (1)
The pelvic cavity projects posteriorly 373 (1)
Important structures cross the ureters 373 (1)
in the pelvic cavity
The prostate is anterior to rectum 373 (2)
The perineum is innervated by sacral 375 (1)
spinal cord segments
Nerves are related to bone 375 (1)
Parasympathetic nerve from spinal cord 376 (1)
levels S2 to S4 control erection
Muscles and fascia of the pelvic floor 377 (1)
and perineum intersect at the perineal
body
Gender determines the course of the 378 (1)
urethra
Regional anatomy 379 (74)
Bones 379 (1)
Pelvic bone 379 (4)
Sacrum 383 (1)
Coccyx 384 (1)
Joints 384 (1)
Lumbosacral joints 384 (1)
Sacro-iliac joints 384 (1)
Pubic symphysis joint 385 (1)
Orientation 386 (1)
Gender differences 386 (1)
True pelvis 387 (1)
Pelvic inlet 387 (1)
Pelvic wall 387 (3)
Pelvic outlet 390 (1)
Pelvic floor 391 (5)
Perineal body 396 (1)
Viscera 397 (1)
Gastrointestinal system 397 (1)
Urinary system 397 (9)
Reproductive system 406 (10)
Fascia 416 (1)
In women 416 (1)
In men 416 (1)
Peritoneum 416 (1)
In women 417 (2)
In men 419 (1)
Nerves 420 (1)
Somatic plexuses 420 (5)
Visceral plexuses 425 (3)
Blood vessels 428 (1)
Arteries 428 (3)
Veins 431 (1)
Lymphatics 432 (2)
Perineum 434 (1)
Borders and ceiling 434 (2)
Perineal membrane and deep perineal 436 (1)
pouch
Ischio-anal fossae and their anterior 436 (1)
recesses
Anal triangle 436 (3)
Urogenital triangle 439 (1)
Structures in the superficial perineal 440 (3)
pouch
Superficial features of the external 443 (2)
genitalia
Superficial fascia of the urogenital 445 (1)
triangle
Somatic nerves 446 (1)
Pudendal nerve 446 (1)
Other somatic nerves 446 (2)
Visceral nerves 448 (1)
Blood vessels 448 (1)
Arteries 448 (2)
Veins 450 (2)
Lymphatics 452 (1)
Surface anatomy 453 (15)
Surface anatomy of the pelvis and 453 (1)
perineum
Orientation of the pelvis and perineum 453 (1)
in the anatomic position
How to define the margins of the 453 (2)
perineum
Identification of structures in the 455 (1)
anal triangle
Identification of structures in the 456 (1)
urogenital triangle of women
Identification of structures in the 457 (3)
urogenital triangle of men
Clinical cases 460 (5)
10 Short questions 465 (3)
Lower limb
Conceptual overview 468 (14)
General introduction 468 (1)
Function 469 (1)
Support the body weight 469 (2)
Locomotion 471 (2)
Component parts 473 (1)
Bones and joints 473 (1)
Muscles 474 (2)
Relationship to other regions 476 (1)
Abdomen 476 (1)
Pelvis 477 (1)
Perineum 477 (1)
Key points 477 (1)
Innervation is by lumbar and sacral 477 (4)
spinal nerves
Nerves related to bone 481 (1)
Superficial veins 481 (1)
Regional Anatomy 482 (103)
Transition from abdomen and pelvis to 482 (1)
lower limb
Bony pelvis 483 (1)
Ilium 483 (1)
Ischial tuberosity 484 (1)
Ischiopubic ramus and pubic bone 485 (1)
Acetabulum 485 (1)
Proximal femur 486 (1)
Greater and lesser trochanters 486 (3)
Hip joint 489 (2)
Ligaments 491 (1)
Gateways to the lower limb 492 (1)
Obturator canal 493 (1)
Greater sciatic foramen 493 (1)
Lesser sciatic foramen 494 (1)
Gap between the inguinal ligament and 494 (1)
pelvic bone
Nerves 494 (1)
Femoral nerve 494 (1)
Obturator nerve 494 (1)
Sciatic nerve 494 (1)
Gluteal nerves 495 (1)
Ilio-inguinal and genitofemoral nerves 496 (1)
Lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh 496 (1)
Nerve to quadratus femoris and nerve to 497 (1)
obturator internus
Posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh 497 (1)
Perforating cutaneous nerve 497 (1)
Arteries 497 (1)
Femoral artery 497 (1)
Superior and inferior gluteal arteries 497 (1)
and the obturator artery
Veins 498 (2)
Lymphatics 500 (1)
Superficial inguinal nodes 500 (1)
Deep inguinal nodes 500 (1)
Popliteal nodes 500 (1)
Deep fascia and the saphenous opening 501 (1)
Fascia lata 501 (1)
Iliotibial tract 501 (1)
Saphenous opening 502 (1)
Femoral triangle 502 (2)
Femoral sheath 504 (1)
Gluteal region 504 (1)
Muscles 505 (1)
Deep group 506 (1)
Superficial group 507 (1)
Nerves 508 (1)
Superior gluteal nerve 508 (1)
Sciatic nerve 509 (1)
Nerve to quadratus femoris 510 (1)
Nerve to obturator internus 510 (1)
Posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh 510 (1)
Pudendal nerve 511 (1)
Inferior gluteal nerve 511 (1)
Perforating cutaneous nerve 511 (1)
Arteries 511 (1)
Inferior gluteal artery 511 (1)
Superior gluteal artery 511 (1)
Veins 512 (1)
Lymphatics 512 (1)
Thigh 512 (1)
Bones 513 (1)
Shaft and distal end of femur 513 (2)
Patella 515 (1)
Proximal end of tibia 515 (2)
Proximal end of the fibula 517 (1)
Muscles 518 (1)
Anterior compartment 518 (3)
Medial compartment 521 (4)
Posterior compartment 525 (1)
Arteries 526 (1)
Femoral artery 526 (3)
Obturator artery 529 (1)
Veins 530 (1)
Great saphenous vein 530 (1)
Nerves 530 (1)
Femoral nerve 530 (1)
Obturator nerve 531 (1)
Sciatic nerve 531 (1)
Knee joint 532 (1)
Articular surfaces 532 (1)
Menisci 533 (1)
Synovial membrane 534 (1)
Fibrous membrane 535 (1)
Ligaments 535 (3)
Locking mechanism 538 (1)
Vascular supply and innervation 538 (3)
Tibiofibular joint 541 (1)
Popliteal fossa 541 (1)
Contents 542 (1)
Roof of popliteal fossa 542 (1)
Leg 542 (1)
Bones 543 (1)
Shaft and distal end of tibia 543 (1)
Shaft and distal end of the fibula 544 (1)
Joints 545 (1)
Interosseous membrane of leg 545 (1)
Posterior compartment of leg 545 (1)
Muscles 545 (5)
Arteries 550 (1)
Veins 551 (1)
Nerves 551 (1)
Lateral compartment of leg 552 (1)
Muscles 552 (1)
Arteries 553 (1)
Veins 553 (1)
Nerves 553 (1)
Anterior compartment of leg 553 (1)
Muscles 553 (2)
Arteries 555 (1)
Veins 556 (1)
Nerves 556 (1)
Foot 557 (1)
Bones 557 (1)
Tarsal bones 557 (4)
Metatarsals 561 (1)
Phalanges 561 (1)
Joints 562 (1)
Ankle joint 562 (2)
Intertarsal joints 564 (4)
Tarsometatarsal joints 568 (1)
Metatarsophalangeal joints 568 (1)
Interphalangeal joints 569 (1)
Tarsal tunnel, retinacula and 569 (1)
arrangement of major structures at the
ankle
Flexor retinaculum 569 (1)
Extensor retinacula 570 (1)
Fibular retinacula 570 (1)
Arches of the foot 571 (1)
Longitudinal arch 571 (1)
Transverse arch 571 (1)
Ligament and muscle support 571 (1)
Plantar aponeurosis 572 (1)
Fibrous sheaths of toes 572 (1)
Extensor hoods 573 (1)
Intrinsic muscles 573 (1)
On the dorsal aspect 574 (1)
In the sole 574 (5)
Arteries 579 (1)
Posterior tibial artery and plantar arch 579 (1)
Dorsalis pedis artery 580 (1)
Veins 581 (1)
Nerves 581 (1)
Tibial nerve 582 (1)
Deep fibular nerve 582 (2)
Superficial fibular nerve 584 (1)
Sural nerve 584 (1)
Saphenous nerve 584 (1)
Surface anatomy 585 (23)
Lower limb surface anatomy 585 (1)
Avoiding the sciatic nerve 586 (1)
Finding the femoral artery in the 587 (1)
femoral triangle
Identifying structures around the knee 587 (2)
Visualizing the contents of the 589 (1)
popliteal fossa
Finding the tarsal tunnel -- the 589 (1)
gateway to the foot
Identifying tendons around the ankle 590 (2)
and in the foot
Finding the dorsalis pedis artery 592 (1)
Approximating the position of the 592 (1)
plantar arterial arch
Major superficial veins 593 (1)
Pulse points 594 (1)
Clinical cases 595 (9)
10 Short questions 604 (4)
Upper limb
Conceptual overview 608 (15)
General description 608 (1)
Functions 609 (1)
Positioning the hand 609 (3)
The hand as a mechanical tool 612 (1)
The hand as a sensory tool 612 (1)
Component parts 612 (1)
Bones and joints 612 (1)
Muscles 613 (2)
Relationship to other regions 615 (1)
Neck 615 (1)
Back and thoracic wall 616 (1)
Key points 617 (1)
Innervation by cervical and upper 617 (4)
thoracic nerves
Nerves related to bone 621 (1)
Superficial veins 621 (1)
Orientation of the thumb 622 (1)
Regional anatomy 623 (107)
Shoulder 623 (1)
Bones 623 (1)
Clavicle 623 (1)
Scapula 623 (2)
Proximal humerus 625 (1)
Joints 626 (1)
Sternoclavicular joint 626 (1)
Acromioclavicular joint 627 (1)
Glenohumeral joint 628 (5)
Muscles 633 (1)
Trapezius 634 (1)
Deltoid 634 (1)
Levator scapulae 635 (1)
Rhomboid minor and major 635 (1)
Posterior scapular region 636 (1)
Muscles 637 (1)
Supraspinatus and infraspinatus 637 (1)
Teres minor and teres major 637 (1)
Long head of triceps brachii 637 (1)
Gateways to the posterior scapular 638 (1)
region
Suprascapular foramen 638 (1)
Quadrangular space (from posterior) 639 (1)
Triangular space 639 (1)
Triangular interval 639 (1)
Nerves 639 (1)
Suprascapular nerve 639 (1)
Axillary nerve 639 (1)
Arteries and veins 639 (1)
Suprascapular artery 639 (1)
Posterior circumflex humeral artery 640 (1)
Circumflex scapular artery 641 (1)
Veins 641 (1)
Axilla 641 (1)
Axillary inlet 642 (1)
Anterior wall 643 (1)
Pectoralis major 643 (1)
Subclavius 644 (1)
Pectoralis minor 645 (1)
Clavipectoral fascia 645 (1)
Medial wall 645 (1)
Serratus anterior 645 (2)
Lateral wall 647 (1)
Posterior wall 648 (1)
Subscapularis 648 (1)
Teres major and latissimus dorsi 649 (1)
Long head of the triceps brachii 649 (1)
Gateways in the posterior wall 649 (1)
Quadrangular space 649 (1)
Triangular space 649 (1)
Triangular interval 650 (1)
Floor 650 (1)
Contents 650 (1)
Biceps brachii 651 (1)
Coracobrachialis 651 (1)
Axillary artery 652 (2)
Axillary vein 654 (1)
Brachial plexus 654 (11)
Lymphatics 665 (1)
Axillary process of the mammary gland 665 (1)
Arm 666 (2)
Bones 668 (1)
Shaft and distal end of the humerus 668 (1)
Proximal end of the radius 669 (1)
Proximal end of the ulna 669 (2)
Muscles 671 (1)
Coracobrachialis 671 (1)
Biceps brachii 671 (1)
Brachialis 672 (1)
Posterior compartment 672 (1)
Arteries and veins 673 (1)
Brachial artery 673 (1)
Profunda brachii artery 674 (2)
Veins 676 (1)
Nerves 676 (1)
Musculocutaneous nerve 676 (1)
Median nerve 676 (1)
Ulnar nerve 676 (1)
Radial nerve 677 (3)
Elbow joint 680 (5)
Cubital fossa 685 (2)
Forearm 687 (1)
Bones 688 (1)
Shaft and distal end of radius 688 (1)
Shaft and distal end of ulna 689 (1)
Joints 690 (1)
Distal radio-ulnar joint 690 (2)
Anterior compartment 692 (1)
Muscles 692 (6)
Arteries and veins 698 (1)
Nerves 699 (2)
Posterior compartment 701 (1)
Muscles 701 (5)
Arteries and veins 706 (1)
Nerves 707 (1)
Hand 707 (1)
Bones 708 (1)
Carpal bones 708 (1)
Metacarpals 708 (2)
Phalanges 710 (1)
Joints 710 (1)
Wrist joint 710 (1)
Carpal joints 711 (1)
Carpometacarpal joints 711 (1)
Metacarpophalangeal joints 711 (1)
Interphalangeal joints of hand 711 (1)
Carpal tunnel and structures at the 712 (2)
wrist
Palmar aponeurosis 714 (1)
Palmaris brevis 715 (1)
Anatomical snuffbox 715 (1)
Fibrous digital sheaths 715 (1)
Extensor hoods 716 (2)
Muscles 718 (1)
Dorsal interossei 718 (1)
Palmar interossei 719 (1)
Adductor pollicis 720 (1)
Thenar muscles 721 (1)
Hypothenar muscles 722 (1)
Lumbrical muscles 722 (1)
Arteries and veins 723 (1)
Ulnar artery and superficial palmar arch 723 (2)
Radial artery and deep palmar arch 725 (1)
Veins 726 (1)
Nerves 726 (1)
Ulnar nerve 726 (1)
Median nerve 727 (1)
Superficial branch of the radial nerve 728 (2)
Surface anatomy 730 (18)
Upper limb surface anatomy 730 (1)
Bony landmarks and muscles of the 730 (2)
posterior scapular region
Visualizing the axilla and locating 732 (2)
contents and related structures
Locating the brachial artery in the arm 734 (1)
The triceps brachii tendon and position 734 (1)
of the radial nerve
Cubital fossa (anterior view) 734 (2)
Identifying tendons and locating major 736 (1)
vessels and nerves in the distal forearm
Normal appearance of the hand 737 (1)
Position of the flexor retinaculum and 738 (1)
the recurrent branch of the median nerve
Motor function of the median and ulnar 738 (1)
nerves in the hand
Visualizing the positions of the 739 (1)
superficial and deep palmar arches
Pulse points 739 (2)
Clinical cases 741 (4)
10 Short questions 745 (3)
Head and neck
Conceptual overview 748 (15)
General description 748 (1)
Head 748 (1)
Major compartments 748 (1)
Other anatomically defined regions 749 (1)
Neck 750 (1)
Compartments 750 (1)
Larynx and pharynx 751 (1)
Functions 751 (1)
Protection 751 (1)
Contains upper parts of respiratory and 751 (1)
digestive tracts
Communication 752 (1)
Positioning the head 752 (1)
Connects the upper and lower 752 (1)
respiratory and digestive tracts
Component parts 752 (1)
Skull 752 (2)
Cervical vertebrae 754 (1)
Hyoid bone 755 (1)
Soft palate 756 (1)
Muscles 756 (1)
In the head 756 (1)
In the neck 756 (1)
Relationship to other regions 757 (1)
Thorax 757 (1)
Upper limbs 757 (1)
Key features 758 (1)
Vertebral levels CIII/IV and CV/VI 758 (1)
Airway in the neck 758 (1)
Cranial nerves 759 (1)
Cervical nerves 760 (1)
Functional separation of the digestive 760 (2)
and respiratory passages
Triangles of the neck 762 (1)
Regional anatomy 763 (250)
Skull 763 (1)
Anterior view 763 (1)
Frontal bone 763 (1)
Zygomatic and nasal bones 764 (1)
Maxillae 765 (1)
Mandible 765 (1)
Lateral view 765 (1)
Lateral portion of the calvaria 765 (2)
Visible part of the facial skeleton 767 (1)
Mandible 767 (1)
Posterior view 767 (1)
Occipital bone 767 (1)
Temporal bones 768 (1)
Superior view 769 (1)
Inferior view 770 (1)
Anterior part 771 (1)
Middle part 771 (1)
Posterior part 772 (1)
Cranial cavity 773 (1)
Roof 773 (1)
Floor 774 (1)
Anterior cranial fossa 774 (1)
Middle cranial fossa 775 (1)
Posterior cranial fossa 775 (7)
Meninges 782 (1)
Cranial dura mater 782 (1)
Dural partitions 783 (1)
Arterial supply 784 (1)
Innervation 785 (1)
Arachnoid mater 785 (1)
Pia mater 785 (1)
Arrangement of meninges and spaces 786 (1)
Epidural space 786 (1)
Subarachnoid space 786 (1)
Brain and its blood supply 787 (1)
Brain 787 (2)
Blood supply 789 (1)
Vertebral arteries 789 (1)
Internal carotid arteries 789 (1)
Arterial circle 789 (7)
Venous drainage 796 (1)
Dural venous sinuses 796 (4)
Cranial nerves 800 (1)
Olfactory nerve [I] 801 (1)
Optic nerve [II] 802 (1)
Oculomotor nerve [III] 802 (1)
Trochlear nerve 802 (1)
Trigeminal nerve 803 (1)
Ophthalmic nerve [V1] 804 (1)
Maxillary nerve [V2] 804 (1)
Mandibular nerve [V3] 804 (1)
Abducent nerve [VI] 804 (1)
Facial nerve [VII] 804 (1)
Vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII] 805 (1)
Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX] 805 (1)
Tympanic nerve 805 (1)
Vagus nerve [X] 805 (1)
Accessory nerve [XI] 806 (1)
Cranial root of the accessory nerve 806 (1)
Hypoglossal nerve [XII] 806 (1)
Face 806 (1)
Muscles 806 (1)
Orbital group 806 (5)
Nasal group 811 (1)
Oral group 812 (2)
Other muscles or muscle groups 814 (1)
Parotid gland 815 (1)
Important relationships 816 (1)
Arterial supply 816 (1)
Innervation 816 (1)
Innervation 817 (4)
Vessels 821 (1)
Arteries 821 (2)
Veins 823 (1)
Lymphatic drainage 824 (1)
Scalp 825 (1)
Layers 825 (1)
Innervation 826 (1)
Anterior to the ears and the vertex 826 (1)
Posterior to the ears and the vertex 827 (1)
Vessels 828 (1)
Arteries 828 (1)
Veins 829 (1)
Lymphatic drainage 829 (1)
Orbit 830 (1)
Bony orbit 830 (1)
Roof 830 (1)
Medial wall 830 (1)
Floor 831 (1)
Lateral wall 831 (1)
Eyelids 831 (1)
Skin and subcutaneous tissue 831 (1)
Orbicularis oculi 831 (1)
Orbital septum 832 (1)
Tarsus and levator palpebrae superioris 832 (1)
Conjunctiva 833 (1)
Glands 833 (1)
Vessels 833 (1)
Innervation 833 (1)
Lacrimal apparatus 834 (1)
Innervation 835 (1)
Vessels 836 (1)
Fissures and foramina 836 (1)
Fascial specializations 837 (1)
Periorbita 837 (1)
Fascial sheath of the eyeball 838 (1)
Check ligaments 839 (1)
Muscles 839 (1)
Extrinsic muscles 839 (5)
Vessels 844 (1)
Arteries 844 (1)
Veins 845 (1)
Innervation 845 (1)
Optic nerve 846 (1)
Oculomotor nerve 846 (1)
Trochlear nerve 846 (1)
Abducent nerve 847 (1)
Postganglionic sympathetic fibers 847 (1)
Ophthalmic nerve [V1] 847 (2)
Ciliary ganglion 849 (1)
Eyeball 850 (1)
Anterior and posterior chambers 850 (1)
Lens and vitreous humor 851 (1)
Walls of the eyeball 851 (1)
Vessels 851 (1)
Fibrous layer of the eyeball 852 (1)
Vascular layer of the eyeball 852 (1)
Inner layer of the eyeball 853 (1)
Ear 854 (1)
External ear 855 (1)
Auricle 855 (1)
External acoustic meatus 856 (1)
Tympanic membrane 856 (2)
Middle ear 858 (1)
Boundaries 859 (1)
Mastoid area 859 (2)
Pharyngotympanic tube 861 (1)
Auditory ossicles 862 (1)
Vessels 863 (1)
Innervation 864 (1)
Internal ear 865 (1)
Bony labyrinth 866 (1)
Membranous labyrinth 867 (2)
Vessels 869 (1)
Innervation 869 (2)
Transmission of sound 871 (1)
Temporal and infratemporal fossae 872 (1)
Bony framework 872 (1)
Temporal bone 872 (1)
Sphenoid bone 872 (1)
Maxilla 873 (1)
Zygomatic bone 873 (1)
Ramus of the mandible 873 (1)
Temporomandibular joints 874 (1)
Joint capsule 875 (1)
Extracapsular ligaments 875 (1)
Movements of the mandible 875 (1)
Masseter muscle 876 (1)
Temporal fossa 877 (1)
Contents 877 (3)
Infratemporal fossa 880 (1)
Contents 880 (11)
Pterygopalatine fossa 891 (1)
Skeletal framework 891 (1)
Sphenoid bone 891 (1)
Gateways 892 (1)
Contents 893 (5)
Neck 898 (1)
Fascia 899 (1)
Investing layer 899 (1)
Prevertebral layer 899 (2)
Pretracheal layer 901 (1)
Carotid sheath 901 (1)
Fascial compartments 901 (1)
Fascial spaces 901 (1)
Superficial venous drainage 901 (2)
External jugular veins 903 (1)
Anterior jugular veins 903 (2)
Anterior triangle of the neck 905 (1)
Muscles 905 (4)
Vessels 909 (3)
Nerves 912 (3)
Thyroid and parathyroid glands 915 (4)
Location of structures in different 919 (1)
regions of anterior triangle
Posterior triangle of the neck 919 (1)
Muscles 920 (3)
Vessels 923 (2)
Nerves 925 (3)
Root of the neck 928 (1)
Vessels 928 (2)
Nerves 930 (3)
Lymphatics 933 (2)
Lymphatics of the neck 935 (2)
Pharynx 937 (1)
Skeletal framework 938 (1)
Anterior vertical line of attachment 939 (1)
for the lateral pharyngeal walls
Pharyngeal wall 939 (1)
Muscles 939 (3)
Fascia 942 (1)
Gaps between muscles in the pharyngeal 942 (1)
wall
Structures passing through the gaps 943 (1)
Nasopharynx 943 (2)
Oropharynx 945 (1)
Laryngopharynx 945 (1)
Tonsils 945 (1)
Vessels 946 (1)
Arteries 946 (1)
Veins 947 (1)
Lymphatics 947 (1)
Nerves 948 (1)
Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX] 948 (1)
Larynx 949 (1)
Laryngeal cartilages 950 (1)
Cricoid cartilage 950 (1)
Thyroid cartilage 950 (1)
Epiglottis 951 (1)
Arytenoid cartilages 951 (1)
Corniculate 952 (1)
Cuneiform 952 (1)
Extrinsic ligaments 952 (1)
Thyrohyoid membrane 952 (1)
Hyo-epiglottic ligament 953 (1)
Cricotracheal ligament 953 (1)
Intrinsic ligaments 953 (1)
Fibro-elastic membrane of larynx 953 (1)
Laryngeal joints 954 (1)
Cricothyroid joints 954 (1)
Crico-arytenoid joints 955 (1)
Cavity of the larynx 955 (1)
Division into three major regions 955 (2)
Laryngeal ventricles and saccules 957 (1)
Rima vestibuli and rima glottidis 957 (1)
Intrinsic muscles 957 (1)
Cricothyroid muscles 957 (1)
Posterior crico-arytenoid muscles 958 (1)
Lateral crico-arytenoid muscles 959 (1)
Transverse arytenoid muscle 959 (1)
Oblique arytenoid muscles 959 (1)
Vocalis 959 (1)
Thyro-arytenoid muscles 959 (1)
Function of the larynx 960 (1)
Respiration 960 (1)
Phonation 961 (1)
Effort closure 961 (1)
Swallowing 961 (1)
Vessels 962 (1)
Arteries 962 (1)
Veins 963 (1)
Lymphatics 963 (1)
Nerves 964 (1)
Superior laryngeal nerves 964 (1)
Recurrent laryngeal nerves 965 (1)
Nasal cavities 965 (1)
Lateral wall 966 (1)
Regions 967 (1)
Innervation and blood supply 968 (1)
Skeletal framework 968 (1)
Ethmoid bone 968 (2)
External nose 970 (1)
Paranasal sinuses 970 (1)
Frontal sinuses 971 (1)
Ethmoid sinuses 971 (1)
Maxillary sinuses 972 (1)
Sphenoid sinuses 972 (1)
Walls, floor, and roof 972 (1)
Medial wall 973 (1)
Floor 973 (1)
Roof 973 (1)
Lateral wall 973 (3)
Nares 976 (1)
Choanae 977 (1)
Gateways 977 (1)
Cribriform plate 977 (1)
Sphenopalatine foramen 977 (1)
Incisive canal 977 (1)
Small foramina in the lateral wall 977 (1)
Vessels 977 (1)
Arteries 978 (1)
Veins 979 (1)
Innervation 980 (1)
Olfactory nerve [I] 980 (1)
Branches from the ophthalmic nerve [V1] 980 (1)
Branches from the maxillary nerve [V2] 981 (1)
Parasympathetic innervation 981 (1)
Sympathetic innervation 981 (1)
Lymphatics 981 (1)
Oral cavity 982 (1)
Multiple nerves innervate the oral 983 (1)
cavity
Skeletal framework 983 (1)
Maxillae 983 (1)
Palatine bones 983 (1)
Sphenoid 983 (1)
Temporal bone 984 (1)
Cartilaginous part of the 985 (1)
pharyngotympanic tube
Mandible 985 (1)
Hyoid bone 986 (1)
Walls: the cheeks 986 (1)
Buccinator 986 (1)
Floor 987 (1)
Mylohyoid muscles 987 (1)
Geniohyoid muscles 988 (1)
Gateway into the floor of the oral 988 (1)
cavity
Tongue 989 (1)
Papillae 990 (1)
Inferior surface of tongue 990 (1)
Pharyngeal surface 990 (1)
Muscles 990 (3)
Vessels 993 (1)
Innervation 994 (2)
Lymphatics 996 (1)
Salivary glands 996 (1)
Parotid gland 996 (1)
Submandibular glands 997 (1)
Sublingual glands 998 (1)
Vessels 998 (1)
Innervation 998 (1)
Roof -- palate 999 (1)
Hard palate 999 (1)
Soft palate 1000 (4)
Vessels 1004 (2)
Innervation 1006 (1)
Oral fissure and lips 1007 (1)
Oropharyngeal isthmus 1007 (1)
Teeth and gingivae 1008 (1)
Vessels 1009 (2)
Innervation 1011 (1)
Inferior alveolar nerve 1011 (1)
Anterior, middle, and posterior 1011 (1)
superior alveolar nerves
Innervation of gingivae 1012 (1)
Surface anatomy 1013 (21)
Head and neck surface anatomy 1013 (1)
Anatomical position of the head and 1014 (1)
major landmarks
Visualizing structures at the CIII/CIV 1015 (1)
and CVI vertebral levels
How to outline the anterior and 1015 (1)
posterior triangles of the neck
How to locate the cricothyroid ligament 1016 (1)
How to find the thyroid gland 1017 (1)
Estimating the position of the middle 1018 (1)
meningeal artery
Major features of the face 1019 (1)
The eye and lacrimal apparatus 1020 (1)
External ear 1021 (1)
Pulse points 1021 (2)
Clinical cases 1023 (9)
10 Short questions 1032 (2)
Index 1034