An American Health Dilemma : A Medical History of African Americans and the Problem of Race : Beginnings to 1900 〈001〉

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An American Health Dilemma : A Medical History of African Americans and the Problem of Race : Beginnings to 1900 〈001〉

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  • Routledge(2000/08発売)
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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 512 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780415924498
  • DDC分類 362.108996073


Offers an extensive examination of the history of intellectual and scientific racism that evolved to give sanction to the mistreatment, medical abuse and neglect of African Americans and other non-White Pepole.

Full Description

At times mirroring and at times shockingly disparate to the rise of traditional white American medicine, the history of African-American health care is a story of traditional healers; root doctors; granny midwives; underappreciated and overworked African-American physicians; scrupulous and unscrupulous white doctors and scientists; governmental support and neglect; epidemics; and poverty. Virtually every part of this story revolves around race. More than 50 years after the publication of An American Dilemma, Gunnar Myrdal's 1944 classic about race relations in the USA, An American Health Dilemma presents a comprehensive and groundbreaking history and social analysis of race, race relations and the African-American medical and public health experience. Beginning with the origins of western medicine and science in Egypt, Greece and Rome the authors explore the relationship between race, medicine, and health care from the precursors of American science and medicine through the days of the slave trade with the harrowing middle passage and equally deadly breaking-in period through the Civil War and the gains of reconstruction and the reversals caused by Jim Crow laws. It offers an extensive examination of the history of intellectual and scientific racism that evolved to give sanction to the mistreatment, medical abuse, and neglect of African Americans and other non-white people. Also included are biographical portraits of black medical pioneers like James McCune Smith, the first African American to earn a degree from a European university, and anecdotal vignettes,like the tragic story of "the Hottentot Venus", which illustrate larger themes.An American Health Dilemma promises to become an irreplaceable and essential look at African-American and medical history and will provide an invaluable baseline for future exploration of race and racism in the American health system.

Table of Contents

        List of Figures and Tables                 xi
Foreword xv
Acknowledgments xix
Preface xxiii
Introduction 1 (1)
On the Origins of a Race- and Class-Based 1 (7)
Goals and Objectives 8 (4)
Methodology 12 (2)
Background for Reassessing Race, Class, and 14 (11)
Health Care in the United States
PART I The Background 25 (160)
Race, Biology, and Health Care in the United 27 (124)
States: Reassessing a Relationship
On Race: Examining an Enigma 34 (11)
The Evolution of a Racially Unequal 43 (2)
Health System
Race Explored: A Life Sciences/Health Care 45 (7)
Race: An Intellectual History 52 (10)
Race: A History of Science Perspective 62 (51)
Race, Medicine, and Science: Ancient 65 (9)
Race, Medicine, and Science: The Middle 74 (8)
Race, Medicine, and Science during the 82 (11)
Renaissance and Reformation
Race, Medicine, and Science in the Age of 93 (5)
Reason and Enlightenment
Nineteenth-Century Race, Science, and 98 (10)
The Social Sciences and Twentieth-Century 108 (5)
Race, Science, and Medicine
Race, Class, Ethnic Politics, and Health 113 (31)
Evaluative Benchmarks of Black Progress 126 (18)
Strategies to Overcome a Dream Deferred: 144 (7)
Race, Justice, and Equity in Health Care As
We Enter the Twenty-first Century
Race, Medicine, and Society: From Prehistoric 151 (34)
to English Colonial Times
Ancient Western Medicine and Health Care: 152 (6)
Race and Class Considerations in
Predecessor Health Systems
Ancient Greece: Establishing Western 158 (5)
Science and Hierarchies
Roman Medicine: Legions, Slaves, and Public 163 (5)
The Middle Ages 168 (5)
The Arabic Legacy of Race and Slavery 173 (3)
The Scientific and Medical Renaissance: 176 (3)
Inauspicious Racial and Medical-Social Roots
Black Health before and during the Slave 179 (6)
Trade: Beginnings of a Health Deficit Legacy
PART II Race, Medicine, and Health in the North 185 (66)
American Colonies and the Early U.S. Republic
Black Health in the North American English 187 (18)
Colonies, 1619-1730
A Background with Iberian Roots 187 (2)
The North American English Colonies 189 (5)
Black Slave Health: Effects of the Diaspora 194 (4)
Origin of a Race- and Class-Based Health 198 (3)
An Embryonic Healing Profession 201 (1)
A Black Healing Tradition 202 (3)
Black Health in the Republican Era, 1731-1812 205 (46)
Seeds of a Multitiered, Unequal Health 209 (3)
Race, Medicine, and Health Care: 212 (9)
Reassessing the Late Eighteenth and Early
Nineteenth Centuries
The ``Hottentot Venus'' and 218 (3)
Nineteenth-Century Racial Science
A ``Slave Health Deficit'' 221 (10)
Institutionalized: 1731-1812
An Emerging Dual Health System in Black and 231 (4)
Race Medicine: Real or Imagined Differences? 235 (5)
The Black Medical Profession: 1731-1812 240 (3)
The White Medical Profession, 1731-1812 243 (8)
PART III Race, Medicine, and Health in the 251 (164)
United States from 1812 to 1900
Black Health and the Jacksonian and 253 (69)
Antebellum Periods, 1812-1861
Growth, Change, and Manifest Destiny 253 (8)
Beginnings of a Health System: Black 261 (18)
Subjugation, Dependency, and Separate
A Unique Health System Culture's Modus 270 (2)
Operandi: Sensationalism, Pragmatism, and
Race and Class Exploitation for
Scientific Advance
A New Perspective on a Medical Icon 272 (7)
Entrenchment of a Black Health Deficit 279 (10)
Stewardship Denied: White Medicine in 289 (13)
Jacksonian and Antebellum America
The Health Professions' Color and Gender 302 (20)
A Slave Hospital on a ``Good'' Plantation 317 (5)
The Civil War, Reconstruction, 322 (93)
Post-Reconstruction, and Black Health,
Black Health 1861-1900: A Roller-Coaster 328 (29)
Ride to Nowhere
The Civil War and Black Health 332 (15)
Black Health and the Reconstruction Era 347 (4)
Black Health in the Gilded Age 351 (4)
Black Health Enters the Progressive Era 355 (2)
Health System Heal Thyself 357 (18)
The White Medical Profession Comes of Age 375 (9)
The Black Medical Profession: Practicing 384 (23)
behind the ``Veil''
Health Policy Born of Pragmatism 387 (20)
A Mixed Legacy 407 (8)
Conclusion: Laying the Foundations of a Dual 415 (2)
and Unequal Health System
Notes 417 (98)
Select Bibliography 515 (30)
A Note on Sources 545 (6)
Index 551