Forensic Speaker Identification (Forensicscience)

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Forensic Speaker Identification (Forensicscience)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 344 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780415271820
  • DDC分類 363.258

Full Description


A voice is much more than just a string of words. Voices, unlike fingerprints, are inherently complex. They signal a great deal of information in addition to the intended message: the speakers' sex, for example, or their emotional state, or age. Although evidence from DNA analysis grabs the headlines, DNA can't talk. It can't be recorded planning, carrying-out or confessing to a crime. It can't be so apparently directly incriminating. Perhaps it is these features that contribute to the interest and importance of Forensic Speaker Identification (FSI)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements                                   xiii
Introduction 1 (8)
Forensic speaker identification 2 (1)
Forensic phonetics 2 (1)
Readership 3 (1)
The take-home messages 3 (1)
Argument and structure of the book 4 (5)
Why voices are difficult to discriminate 9 (24)
forensically
Between-speaker and within-speaker variation 10 (3)
Probabilities of evidence 13 (1)
Distribution in speaker space 14 (1)
Multidimensionality 14 (3)
Discrimination in forensic speaker 17 (1)
identification
Dimensional resolving power 18 (1)
Ideal vs. realistic conditions 18 (1)
Lack of control over variation 19 (2)
Reduction in dimensionality 21 (1)
Representativeness of forensic data 22 (8)
Legitimate pooling of unknown samples 30 (1)
Chapter summary 31 (2)
Forensic-phonetic parameters 33 (22)
Types of parameters 34 (1)
Acoustic vs. auditory parameters 34 (7)
Traditional vs. automatic acoustic 41 (2)
parameters
Linguistic vs. non-linguistic parameters 43 (2)
Linguistic sources of individual variation 45 (3)
Forensic significance: linguistic analysis 48 (2)
Quantitative and qualitative parameters 50 (1)
Discrete and continuous parameters 50 (1)
Requirements on forensic-phonetic parameters 51 (2)
Chapter summary 53 (2)
Expressing the outcome 55 (26)
The likelihood ratio 57 (3)
Combination of likelihood ratios 60 (3)
Prior odds 63 (1)
Alternative hypothesis 64 (2)
Bayesian inference 66 (3)
Pros and cons 69 (1)
Pro-Bayesian arguments 69 (4)
Anti-Bayesian arguments 73 (3)
A reality check 76 (2)
Chapter summary 78 (3)
Characterising forensic speaker identification 81 (44)
Speaker recognition 81 (1)
Speaker identification and verification 82 (5)
Relationship between forensic speaker 87 (4)
identification and speaker
identification/verification
Summary: Verification and identification 91 (1)
Naive and technical speaker recognition 92 (1)
Technical speaker recognition 92 (4)
Conditions on forensic-phonetic speaker 96 (1)
identification experiments
Naive speaker recognition 97 (8)
Naive speaker recognition: Discussion 105 (1)
Familiarisation in auditory forensic 106 (1)
analysis
Aural-spectrographic (voiceprint) 107 (4)
identification
Linguistic controversy 111 (9)
Legal controversy 120 (2)
Summary: Aural-spectrographic method 122 (1)
Chapter summary 122 (3)
The human vocal tract and the production and 125 (50)
description of speech sounds
The vocal tract 126 (1)
The basic dichotomy 126 (1)
Vocal cords 127 (4)
Forensic significance: Vocal cord activity 131 (1)
Summary: Vocal cord activity 131 (1)
The supralaryngeal vocal tract 131 (4)
Forensic significance: Nasals and 135 (1)
nasalisation
Squeezing the supralaryngeal vocal tract 135 (2)
tube: Vowels and consonants
Place and manner description of consonants 137 (3)
Place of articulation 140 (2)
English consonants 142 (2)
Vowels 144 (1)
Primary parameters of vowel description 144 (4)
Secondary parameters of vowel description 148 (2)
English vowels 150 (2)
The componentiality of speech sounds 152 (1)
Summary: Consonants and vowels 153 (1)
Suprasegmentals: Stress, intonation, tone 153 (1)
and pitch accent
Stress 154 (2)
Forensic significance: Stress 156 (1)
Intonation 156 (2)
Tone 158 (2)
Pitch accent 160 (1)
Typology of suprasegmentals 161 (1)
Forensic significance: Suprasegmentals 161 (1)
Timing of supralaryngeal and vocal cord 162 (4)
activity
Non-linguistic temporal structure 166 (1)
Rate 166 (3)
Forensic significance: Rate of utterance 169 (1)
Continuity 170 (2)
Forensic significance: Continuity 172 (1)
Summary: Non-linguistic temporal structure 173 (1)
Chapter summary 173 (2)
Phonemics 175 (20)
Speech sounds in individual languages 175 (1)
Phonemic contrast 176 (1)
Phonemes and allophones 176 (3)
Comparison with English: The phonemic 179 (1)
insight
Types of distribution 180 (1)
The reality of phonemes 181 (1)
Phonotactics 182 (1)
English phonemes 183 (2)
Forensic significance: Phonemic structure 185 (1)
Establishing between-sample comparability 185 (1)
Between-speaker and within-speaker 186 (6)
differences in phonemic structure
Morphophonemics 192 (1)
Between-speaker and within-speaker 193 (1)
allomorphic differences
Accent imitation 194 (1)
Chapter summary 194 (1)
Speech acoustics 195 (74)
Speech sounds 195 (1)
Speech waves 196 (3)
Spectral representation 199 (8)
The acoustic theory of speech production 207 (1)
Source 207 (2)
Filter 209 (2)
Formants 211 (1)
Interaction of source and filter 212 (3)
Forensic significance: Vocal tract length 215 (5)
and formant frequencies
Summary: Source-filter theory 220 (1)
Spectrograms 220 (5)
Spectrograms of other vowels 225 (3)
Acoustic vowel plots 228 (2)
Between-speaker variation in vowel acoustics 230 (2)
Within-speaker variation in vowel acoustics 232 (3)
Forensic significance: Differential effects 235 (2)
of phonological environment
Forensic significance: Within-speaker 237 (1)
variation in vowel acoustics
Higher-frequency formants 237 (1)
Forensic significance: Higher-frequency 237 (1)
formants
A whole-word example 238 (5)
Forensic significance: Vowel acoustics 243 (1)
Fundamental frequency 244 (2)
Forensic significance: Fundamental frequency 246 (2)
Long-term fundamental frequency 248 (5)
distributions
Fundamental frequency distributions and 253 (4)
probability
Modelling fundamental frequency 257 (2)
distributions
Long-term spectrum 259 (2)
Forensic significance: Long-term spectrum 261 (1)
The cepstrum 262 (3)
Forensic significance: Cepstrum 265 (1)
Differential software performance 265 (2)
Chapter summary 267 (2)
Speech perception 269 (8)
Speech-specific perception 270 (3)
Forensic significance: Speech-specific 273 (1)
perception
Expectation effect 273 (1)
Forensic significance: Expectation effect 273 (1)
Perceptual integration 274 (1)
Forensic significance: Perceptual 275 (1)
integration
Chapter summary 275 (2)
What is a voice? 277 (26)
The meaning of `voice' 277 (1)
Voice quality and phonetic quality 278 (3)
Forensic significance: Phonetic quality and 281 (1)
voice quality
Tone of voice (1) 282 (1)
Forensic significance: Tone of voice 282 (1)
The need for a model 283 (1)
Voice as `choice' and `constraint' 284 (2)
Vocal mechanism 286 (1)
Linguistic mechanism 286 (4)
Tone of voice (2) 290 (1)
Communicative intent 291 (2)
Forensic significance: Affect 293 (1)
Forensic significance: Social intent 294 (1)
Forensic significance: Regulatory intent 295 (1)
Intrinsic indexical factors 296 (4)
Forensic significance: Intrinsic indexical 300 (2)
factors
Chapter summary 302 (1)
The likelihood ratio revisited: A 303 (24)
demonstration of the method
Calculation of likelihood ratio with 306 (4)
continuous data
A likelihood ratio formula 310 (2)
Applications 312 (6)
The likelihood ratio as a discriminant 318 (1)
distance
Problems and limitations 319 (6)
Chapter summary 325 (2)
Summary and envoi 327 (10)
Requirements for successful forensic 329 (4)
speaker identification
In the future? 333 (4)
Glossary 337 (6)
References 343 (10)
Index 353