自然災害と被傷性(第2版)<br>At Risk : Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability, and Disasters (2ND)

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自然災害と被傷性(第2版)
At Risk : Natural Hazards, People's Vulnerability, and Disasters (2ND)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 336 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780415252164
  • DDC分類 363.34

基本説明

Contents: Part 1. Framework and Theory/ Part 2. Vulnerability and Hazard Types/ Part 3. Action for Disaster Reduction.

Full Description


The term 'natural disaster' is often used to refer to natural events such as earthquakes, hurricanes or floods. However, the phrase 'natural disaster' suggests an uncritical acceptance of a deeply engrained ideological and cultural myth. At Risk questions this myth and argues that extreme natural events are not disasters until a vulnerable group of people is exposed.The updated new edition confronts a further ten years of ever more expensive and deadly disasters and discusses disaster not as an aberration, but as a signal failure of mainstream 'development'. Two analytical models are provided as tools for understanding vulnerability. One links remote and distant 'root causes' to 'unsafe conditions' in a 'progression of vulnerability'. The other uses the concepts of 'access' and 'livelihood' to understand why some households are more vulnerable than others. Examining key natural events and incorporating strategies to create a safer world, this revised edition is an important resource for those involved in the fields of environment and development studies.

Table of Contents

List of illustrations                              ix
Foreword: The Great Wave xi
Preface to 2004 edition xiv
Preface to 1994 edition xvi
List of abbreviations and acronyms xviii
PART I Framework and theory 1 (124)
1 The challenge of disasters and our approach 3 (46)
In at the deep end 3 (7)
Conventional views of disaster 10 (1)
What is vulnerability? 11 (9)
Changes since the first edition 20 (9)
Convergence and critique 29 (3)
Audiences 32 (3)
Scope and plan of the book 35 (2)
Limits and assumptions 37 (39)
Text box:
1.1 Naturalness versus the 'social 76
causation' of disasters
2 The Disaster Pressure and Release model 49 (38)
The nature of vulnerability 49 (3)
Cause and effect in the Disaster Pressure 52 (7)
model
Time and the chain of explanation 59 (1)
Limits to our knowledge 60 (2)
Global trends and dynamic pressures 62 (21)
Uses of the PAR model 83
Text boxes:
2.1 Landles squatters in Dhaka 56 (1)
2.2 Karakoram and house collapse 57 (8)
2.3 Problems with disaster statistics 65 (3)
2.4 Age structure and vulnerabilities 68 (19)
3 Access to resources and coping in adversity 87 (38)
Access to resources-an introduction 87 (8)
New thinking since 1994 95 (3)
'Normal life' - the formal Access model 98 (14)
Coping and access to safety 112 (13)
PART II Vulnerability and hazard types 125 (194)
4 Famine and natural hazards 127 (40)
Introduction 127 (1)
Famines and their causes 128 (5)
Explanations of famine 133 (11)
Complex emergencies, policy famines and 144 (3)
human rights
Causes, pressures, unsafe conditions and 147 (2)
famine
Access and famines 149 (10)
Policy 159 (4)
Conclusion 163
Text box:
4.1 Famine in Malawi, 2002 131 (36)
5 Biological hazards 167 (34)
Introduction 167 (1)
What are biological hazards? 168 (4)
Biological links with other hazards 172 (2)
Livelihoods, resources and disease 174 (1)
Vulnerability-creating processes 175 (5)
Pressures affecting defences against 180 (3)
biological hazards
Root causes and pressures 183 (10)
Steps towards risk reduction 193
Text boxes:
5.1 The Irish Potato Famine, 1845-1848 178 (7)
5.2 HIV-AIDS in Africa 185 (16)
6 Floods 201 (42)
Introduction 201 (4)
Floods as known risks 205 (11)
Disastrous outcomes for vulnerable people 216 (22)
Summary: floods and vulnerability 238 (1)
Flood prevention and mitigation 239
Text boxes:
6.1 Floods in China, 1998 208 (10)
6.2 'Small' floods - a hidden problem 218 (7)
6.3 Bangladesh - reducing vulnerability 225 (11)
to floods is not the same as stopping
floods
6.4 Flooding and deforestation: the 236 (7)
causation controversy
7 Coastal storms 243 (31)
Introduction 243 (3)
The physical hazard 246 (1)
Patterns of vulnerability 247 (9)
Case studies 256 (12)
Policy response 268 (6)
8 Earthquakes and volcanoes 274 (45)
Introduction 274 (5)
Classic case studies: Guatemala and Mexico 279 (13)
Recent case studies 292 (11)
Volcanoes and related hazards 303 (12)
Policy response and mitigation 315
Text boxes:
8.1 Progression of vulnerability - the 298 (4)
Kobe earthquake
8.2 Progression of vulnerability - the 302 (7)
Gujarat earthquake
8.3 Chronology of events during the 309 (2)
Montserrat eruptions
8.4 Progression of vulnerability - the 311 (8)
Montserrat eruptions
PART III Towards a safer environment 319 (58)
9 Towards a safer environment 321 (56)
'Towards a safer environment': are 321 (2)
statements of intent merely hot air?
From Yokohama to Johannesburg via Geneva 323 (7)
Risk-reduction objectives 330 (7)
Text boxes:
9.1 Emergency Management Australia - 337 (10)
extract from a study on the assessment of
personal and community resilience and
vulnerability
9.2 Four point plan for a safer world 347 (8)
9.3 Central America - implementing 355 (7)
comprehensive recovery?
9.4 Flood recovery in Anhui province 362 (1)
China, 1993
9.5 Flood recovery in Mozambique, 2000 363 (14)
Bibliography 377 (70)
Index 447