アメリカの開発計画:政策、問題、過程(第2版)<br>Planning in the USA : Policies, Issues and Processes (2ND)

アメリカの開発計画:政策、問題、過程(第2版)
Planning in the USA : Policies, Issues and Processes (2ND)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 336 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780415247887
  • DDC分類 307.12160973

Full Description


This extensively revised and updated edition of Planning in the USA continues to provide a comprehensive introduction to the policies, theory and practice of planning. Outlining land use, urban planning and environmental protection policies, this fully illustrated book explains the nature of the planning process and the way in which policy issues are identified, defined and approached. *The second edition incorporates new planning legislation and regulations at the state and federal layers of government. New material includes: *The role of citizen participation and how planners can obtain it *The use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in planning *A discussion of the 'Rural Renaissance' population movement *The need for infrastructure to be concurrent with development *The major 'Smart Growth' movement *Zoning innovations *A discussion of multiple species conservation planning, habitat conservation planning and sustainability. The book gives a detailed account of urbanization in the USA and reveals the problematic nature and limitations of the planning process, the fallibility of experts and the difficulties facing policy makers in their search for solutions.Planning in the USA is an essential book for students, planners and all who are concerned with the nature of contemporary urban and environmental problems.

Table of Contents

List of plates                                     xiii
List of figures xv
List of boxes xvii
Preface by Roger W. Caves xxi
Acknowledgments xxiii
List of acronyms and abbreviations xxv
INTRODUCTION 1 (4)
PART 1 PLANNING AND GOVERNMENT 5 (58)
1 The nature of planning 6 (21)
The character of planning 6 (2)
Planning theory and rationality 8 (1)
The practice of planning 8 (1)
Sectoral and comprehensive planning 9 (1)
Interest groups 10 (2)
Local interest groups 12 (1)
Advocacy planning 12 (2)
Planning vs implementation 14 (2)
Incrementalism 16 (1)
Local vs central control 17 (1)
Underlying attitudes to land and property 18 (1)
Private and public planning processes 19 (1)
The elements of the planning process 20 (1)
Citizen participation 21 (2)
Geographic information systems 23 (4)
2 Urbanization 27 (17)
A culture of mobility 27 (1)
Three centuries of urban growth 27 (3)
Town development 30 (1)
Transportation for commuters 31 (1)
Public policies and suburbanization 32 (4)
Decentralization 36 (3)
Current trends 39 (2)
The role of government in urbanization 41 (3)
3 Governing and planning urban areas 44 (19)
Basic needs for government 44 (1)
Privatism 45 (1)
The growth of public powers 46 (1)
Machine politics 46 (1)
The reform movement 46 (1)
Parks 47 (1)
The City Beautiful 48 (2)
Municipal reform 50 (1)
Reform and the planning function 51 (3)
The gridiron plan 54 (1)
City planning as an exact science 55 (1)
Regional planning 56 (7)
PART 2 LAND USE REGULATON 63 (62)
4 The evolution of zoning 64 (11)
The need for property protection 64 (1)
Early land use controls 65 (2)
Immigration and urbanization 67 (1)
The movement for planning 67 (1)
The New York zoning ordinance of 1916 67 (3)
The Standard State Zoning Enabling Act 70 (1)
The Euclid case 71 (2)
The narrowness of zoning 73 (2)
5 The institutional and legal framework 75 (14)
Planning and zoning 75 (3)
Zoning as a local matter 78 (1)
The local managers of zoning 79 (3)
The constitutional framework 82 (2)
The role of the courts 84 (2)
Subdivision controls 86 (3)
6 The techniques of zoning 89 (20)
The traditional techniques of zoning 89 (1)
The single family zone: what is a family? 90 (1)
Group homes 91 (1)
The single family house: should there be a 92 (1)
minimum size?
Large lot zoning: maintaining community 93 (1)
character
Floor area ratio 93 (1)
Apartments and mobile homes 93 (1)
Conditional uses 94 (1)
Variances 95 (4)
Spot zoning 99 (1)
Floating zone 99 (1)
Downzoning 100 (1)
Contract zoning and site plan review 100 (1)
Cluster zoning and planned unit development 101 (1)
Non-conforming uses 102 (1)
Zoning amendments 103 (1)
Special district zoning 104 (1)
Overlay zones 105 (1)
Exclusionary zoning 106 (1)
Conclusion 107 (2)
7 Development charges 109 (16)
Paying for the costs of development 109 (2)
Impact fees 111 (1)
The rational nexus 112 (1)
The incidence of charges 113 (1)
Existing vs new home owners 113 (1)
Linkages 114 (1)
Incentive zoning in New York 115 (2)
The negotiation syndrome 117 (1)
The dangers of bonusing 118 (1)
Purposes of bonusing 119 (2)
Development agreements 121 (1)
In conclusion 122 (3)
PART 3 QUALITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT 125 (28)
8 Aesthetics 126 (14)
Regulating aesthetics 126 (1)
Billboards 127 (3)
Rural signs 130 (2)
Urban signs 132 (1)
Architectural design review 133 (5)
New urbanism 138 (2)
9 Historic preservation 140 (13)
Preservation and profit 140 (1)
The early days of heritage preservation 141 (1)
With Heritage So Rich and subsequent 142 (1)
legislation
The National Register of Historic Places 142 (1)
Statewide comprehensive historic 142 (4)
preservation planning
Highways and historic preservation 146 (1)
The National Environmental Policy Act 146 (1)
Economics of historic preservation 147 (1)
State and local programs 148 (2)
Historic preservation and tourism 150 (1)
The widening scope of historic preservation 151 (2)
PART 4 GROWTH MANAGEMENT 153 (36)
10 Growth management and local government 154 (14)
Attitudes to growth 154 (1)
The Ramapo growth control program 155 (1)
The Petaluma quota plan 156 (2)
Other growth control programs 158 (1)
Growth management and infrastructure 158 (1)
Initiatives in Boulder 159 (1)
Safeguarding agricultural land 160 (3)
Smart growth 163 (2)
Direct democracy devices and growth 165 (1)
management
Conclusion 165 (3)
11 Urban growth management and the states 168 (21)
Urban growth problems 168 (1)
Hawaii 169 (1)
Oregon 170 (3)
Vermont 173 (2)
Florida 175 (3)
California 178 (4)
New Jersey 182 (2)
Conclusion 184 (5)
PART 5 DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES 189 (64)
12 Transportation 190 (22)
The centrality of transportation 190 (1)
The arithmetic of transportation 190 (1)
Telecommuting 191 (1)
Suburbanization and transportation 192 (1)
Traffic restraint through land use planning 193 (1)
Transit-oriented development 194 (4)
Traffic calming 198 (1)
Increasing the supply of road space 199 (1)
Downs' principle of 'triple convergence' 200 (1)
Transport demand management 200 (1)
Parking policies 200 (1)
TDM programs 201 (1)
Congestion charges 202 (2)
Congestion charging and equity 204 (1)
The Intermodal Surface Transportation 205 (3)
Efficiency Act 1991
Transportation Equity Act for the 208 (1)
Twenty-First Century
Conclusions and uncertainties 209 (3)
13 Housing 212 (21)
The complex of housing 212 (1)
Housing market theories 213 (2)
Low-income housing 215 (1)
Housing trust funds 216 (1)
Public housing and urban renewal 216 (3)
Alternatives to public housing 219 (1)
Housing subsidies 220 (3)
Accessory dwelling units 223 (1)
Affordable housing and growth management 224 (1)
Regional housing needs: the case of Mount 225 (1)
Laurel
The New Jersey Fair Housing Act 226 (1)
Housing measures in other states 227 (1)
The Federal Fair Housing Act 228 (1)
Inclusionary zoning 228 (2)
Conclusion 230 (3)
14 Community and economic development 233 (20)
Changing perspectives 233 (1)
The War on Poverty 234 (1)
The model cities program 234 (1)
The new federalism 235 (1)
Community Development Block Grants 236 (1)
Carter's new partnership 237 (1)
National agenda for the 1980s: urban America 238 (1)
The Reagan years 239 (1)
Economic development policies 240 (1)
Enterprise zones 241 (3)
Community development 244 (4)
Faith-based organizations 248 (1)
Support for social change 249 (1)
Additional opportunities 249 (4)
PART 6 ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING 253 (54)
15 Environmental policies 254 (33)
ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS 254 (4)
Environmental awareness 254 (1)
The first Earth Day 255 (2)
The Reagan years 257 (1)
Beyond Reagan 257 (1)
THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT 258 (5)
Environmental control of federal programs 258 (1)
Federal organization for NEPA 259 (1)
The environmental review process 260 (3)
CLEAN AIR 263 (7)
Technics and politics 263 (1)
Early clean air policies 264 (1)
Pollution and economic development 264 (1)
The structure of clean air controls 265 (1)
Acid rain 265 (2)
Ozone 267 (1)
State implementation plans 267 (1)
Areas of severe pollution 268 (1)
Vehicle emissions 268 (1)
The 1990 Act and its future 269 (1)
CLEAN WATER 270 (5)
The succession of professional approaches 270 (1)
Federal water policy 271 (1)
Water quality standards 272 (1)
Municipal treatment plants 272 (1)
Nonpoint pollution 273 (1)
Groundwater pollution 273 (1)
Safe drinking water 274 (1)
The limits of the regulatory approach 274 (1)
WASTE 275 (8)
The nature of waste 275 (2)
Hazardous waste 277 (1)
Love Canal 277 (1)
Superfund legislation 278 (2)
Liability and compensation 280 (1)
Toxic substances and pesticides 281 (1)
Nuclear waste 282 (1)
OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS 283 (4)
Coastal zone management 283 (1)
Endangered species 283 (4)
16 The limits of environmental policy 287 (20)
Introduction 287 (1)
Technocratic policy 288 (2)
Values and risks 290 (1)
Perceptions of risk 290 (1)
Risk and equity 291 (4)
The Pollution Prevention Act 1990 295 (1)
Balancing costs and benefits 295 (1)
Economic analysis 296 (1)
Economic incentives in environmental 297 (1)
regulation
The range of economic instruments 297 (1)
Emissions trading 298 (2)
The right to know 300 (1)
Public participation 301 (1)
The progress of environmental policies 302 (5)
CONCLUSION 307 (16)
17 Some final questions 308 (15)
Determining the questions 308 (2)
Property rights - 'wise use' 310 (1)
Beyond localism 311 (1)
Local acceptance of unwanted land uses 312 (1)
Unwanted neighbors 313 (4)
The role for the states 317 (2)
Public participation and public confidence 319 (1)
In conclusion 320 (3)
List of main cases 323 (1)
References 324 (21)
Index 345