Air Quality Assessment and Management : A Practical Guide (Clay's Library of Health and the Environment)

Air Quality Assessment and Management : A Practical Guide (Clay's Library of Health and the Environment)

  • ただいまウェブストアではご注文を受け付けておりません。 ⇒古書を探す
  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 504 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780415234115
  • DDC分類 628.53

Full Description


Air Quality Assessment and Managementtechniques available for an assessment while detailing the concepts and methodologies involved. It reviews the principles of air quality management; primary sources of air pollution; impact of emissions on human health, flora and fauna; scoping of air quality impacts; baseline monitoring; impact prediction; impact significance; and pollution mitigation and control. Emphasis will be placed on the practical side of AQA, with numerous international case studies and exercises to aid the reader in their understanding of concepts and applications.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xiii
Dedication xv
Acknowledgements xvi
Introduction 1 (4)
Introduction 1 (1)
Air pollution - a concern 1 (3)
Book format 4 (1)
Air Pollution Sources and Types 5 (38)
Introduction 5 (1)
Composition of the atmosphere 5 (1)
Air pollution sources 6 (3)
Types of pollutants and their sources 9 (23)
Carcinogenic pollutants 12 (2)
Carbon monoxide 14 (2)
Carbon dioxide 16 (1)
Lead 16 (1)
Nitrogen dioxide 17 (2)
Ozone 19 (3)
Particulates 22 (1)
Sulphur dioxide 23 (3)
Dioxins and Furans 26 (4)
Other pollutants 30 (2)
Trends in air quality 32 (4)
Carbon monoxide 32 (1)
Lead 32 (1)
Nitrogen dioxide 33 (1)
Sulphur dioxide 33 (1)
Carbon dioxide 34 (1)
Ozone 35 (1)
Indoor air pollution 36 (7)
Smoking 41 (2)
Effects of Air Pollution 43 (36)
Introduction 43 (1)
Human health 43 (17)
Smogs and air pollution episodes 44 (4)
Assessing health effects 48 (3)
Asthma 51 (1)
Health effects of specific air pollutants 51 (9)
Flora 60 (2)
Fauna 62 (1)
Ecosystems 63 (1)
Materials 64 (2)
Visibility (particle haze) 66 (2)
Visual range 67 (1)
Strategic air quality issues 68 (11)
Acid rain 68 (3)
Ozone depletion 71 (1)
Greenhouse effect 72 (7)
Emission Inventories 79 (30)
Introduction 79 (1)
The purpose of emission inventories 80 (1)
Atmospheric emission inventory initiatives 81 (3)
Types of emission release and sources 84 (8)
Industrial emissions 85 (3)
Domestic emissions 88 (1)
Agricultural emissions 88 (1)
Motor vehicle emissions 89 (3)
Aircraft emissions 92 (1)
Information requirements 92 (3)
Examples of national emission inventories 95 (5)
UK national atmospheric emissions 96 (1)
inventory
European emission inventories 97 (1)
Canadian national emission inventory 98 (1)
US national emission inventory 99 (1)
Transboundary emissions 100 (5)
Terrestrial 100 (3)
Marine 103 (2)
Pollution emission trends 105 (2)
Exercise 107 (2)
Air Pollution Monitoring 109 (38)
Introduction 109 (1)
Forms of monitoring 109 (1)
Site selection 109 (2)
Monitoring strategies 111 (2)
Monitoring standards and accreditation 113 (1)
Monitoring methods and techniques 113 (16)
Methods of measurement 114 (4)
Measurement techniques 118 (2)
Particulate measurement 120 (6)
Carbon monoxide 126 (1)
Sulphur dioxide 126 (1)
Oxides of nitrogen 127 (1)
Ozone 128 (1)
Volatile organic compounds 128 (1)
Lead 129 (1)
Odour measurement 129 (1)
Other equipment 130 (1)
Monitoring networks 130 (10)
GEMS 130 (4)
National and municipal air quality 134 (6)
monitoring networks
Source monitoring 140 (7)
Point source monitoring 140 (4)
Mobile sources 144 (3)
Impact Prediction 147 (36)
Introduction 147 (1)
Mechanisms for dispersion 147 (9)
Wind speed and direction 148 (2)
Atmospheric turbulence 150 (3)
Temperature inversions 153 (1)
Topography 153 (2)
Plume formation 155 (1)
Air dispersion modelling 156 (4)
What is a model? 158 (2)
Model characteristics 160 (4)
Time and space scales 160 (1)
Frame of reference 160 (1)
Pollutants and reaction mechanisms 161 (1)
Treatment of turbulence 161 (1)
Topography 161 (1)
Plume additivity (treatment of multiple 161 (1)
sources)
Model accuracy and limitations 162 (2)
Data requirements 164 (1)
Air dispersion modelling procedures 165 (1)
Stack height determination 165 (3)
Plume rise 168 (3)
Gaussian modelling 171 (3)
Extrapolating time average concentrations 174 (1)
Box models 174 (1)
Linear models 175 (1)
Physical models 175 (1)
Types of air dispersion models 176 (3)
Exercise 179 (4)
Impact Significance and Legislation 183 (48)
Introduction 183 (1)
Impact significance 183 (12)
EU air quality standards 185 (3)
World Health Organisation air quality 188 (3)
guidelines
National air quality standards 191 (2)
Derived air quality standards 193 (2)
Air pollution indices 195 (5)
Risk assessment 200 (3)
Nuisance 203 (8)
Particulates 204 (1)
Odour 205 (5)
Visibility 210 (1)
Flora 211 (2)
Indoor air pollution 213 (1)
Pollution episodes 213 (2)
Air pollution legislation 215 (8)
Greenhouse gases 216 (1)
Ozone layer 216 (2)
International conventions 218 (1)
European Union 219 (4)
World Health Organisation 223 (1)
National air pollution control regimes 223 (5)
UK air pollution control regime 223 (3)
US air pollution control regime 226 (1)
Japanese air pollution control regime 227 (1)
Singaporean air pollution control regime 228 (1)
People's Republic of China legislative 228 (1)
system
Public awareness 228 (3)
Mitigation, Control and Management 231 (38)
Introduction 231 (1)
What is mitigation and control? 231 (1)
Control of fugitive emissions 232 (5)
Fugitive dust control 232 (2)
Fugitive gaseous control 234 (1)
Visual inspections 235 (2)
Techniques for the control of gaseous 237 (12)
emissions
General abatement techniques 237 (7)
Control of oxides of nitrogen 244 (1)
Control of sulphur dioxide 244 (1)
Odour control 245 (2)
Control of dioxin emissions 247 (2)
Techniques for the control of particulate 249 (7)
emissions
Gravity settler 249 (1)
Cyclone 250 (1)
Fabric or bag filters 251 (1)
Electrostatic precipitators 251 (2)
Wet scrubber 253 (1)
Equipment selection 253 (3)
Control of emissions from agricultural 256 (1)
practices
Flaring 256 (1)
Control of emissions from motor vechicles 257 (2)
Cost effectiveness 259 (2)
Air quality management 261 (8)
AQM process 263 (1)
Air quality management in the UK 264 (1)
Designation of air quality management 265 (1)
areas
Air quality action plans 266 (3)
Site Inspection and Project Management 269 (10)
Introduction 269 (1)
Process inspection 269 (5)
Presentation to management 269 (1)
Orientation tour 270 (1)
Techniques 270 (3)
Verification techniques 273 (1)
Inspection findings 273 (1)
Close out meeting 273 (1)
Project management 274 (5)
Report writing 276 (1)
Financial control 277 (2)
Case Studies 279 (62)
Introduction 279 (1)
Case Study 1 - Screening air quality 280 (2)
monitoring study
Case Study 2 - Indoor air quality health 282 (1)
assessment
Case Study 3 - Emission inventory 283 (6)
Case Study 4 - Baseline air quality 289 (5)
monitoring study
Sulphur dioxide and smoke 289 (2)
Nitrogen dioxide 291 (3)
Monitoring 294 (1)
Case Study 5 - Air dispersion modelling 294 (1)
study
Case Study 6 - Quantitative health risk 295 (4)
assessment
Case Study 7 - Air quality management 299 (12)
Screening study 306 (3)
Long-term calculations 309 (2)
Areas of expected exceedences of air 311 (1)
quality objectives
Case Study 8 - Emission control 311 (1)
Case Study 9 - Spireslack open cast coal 312 (8)
site
Method of assessment 313 (1)
Baseline air quality and metorological 313 (2)
conditions
The proposed development 315 (1)
Potential emissions 316 (3)
Mitigation measures 319 (1)
Environmental consequences 319 (1)
Case Study 10 - Power station air 320 (4)
dispersion modelling study
Meteorological data 320 (2)
Modelling parameters 322 (1)
Modelling results 322 (1)
Assessment of predicted concentrations 323 (1)
Comparison of predicted deposition levels 324 (1)
with critical load levels
Environmental consequences 324 (1)
Case Study 11 - Widening of the 324 (8)
Tolo/Fanling highway between the Island
House Interchange and Fanling (Hong Kong),
People's Republic of China
Description of study area 325 (4)
Construction phase air quality impacts 329 (1)
Operational phase air quality impacts 330 (2)
Environmental consequences 332 (1)
Case Study 12 - Emission inventory of VOCs 332 (2)
Case Study 13 - Assessment of air quality 334 (3)
data
Case Study 14 - A comparison of model 337 (4)
predictions and baseline monitoring data
Epilogue 341 (2)
Appendix 343 (14)
A1 Terminology 343 (3)
A2 Pollutants 346 (3)
A3 Units 349 (1)
A4 Annotations 350 (2)
A5 Useful contact details 352 (1)
A.5.1 National environmental agencies 352 (1)
A.5.2 International institutions 353 (1)
A6 Conversion tables 353 (4)
References 357 (20)
Country index 377 (2)
Subject index 379