Understanding I.T. in Construction

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Understanding I.T. in Construction

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 136 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780415231909
  • DDC分類 690.068

Full Description


In recent years, Information Technology (IT) has been transforming business practice in many sectors resulting in efficiency gains and improved services for the client. The construction industry lags behind other manufacturing and service industries in adopting the new technology. To promote the wider use of IT in construction, it is essential to equip practitioners and graduates of construction related disciplines with knowledge of existing construction IT applications. This book provides an overview of a broad range of IT applications currently available for all stages throughout the life cycle of a building project, from essential office and information management through to computer-aided design (CAD), cost estimating, project planning and scheduling, and facilities management and building maintenance. It is an invaluable and handy reference for construction professionals and clients, as well as being a clear and comprehensive text for students studying construction, building or architectural courses.

Table of Contents

LIST OF FIGURES                                    xi
LIST OF TABLES xiii
PREFACE xiv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xv
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xvi
CHAPTER 1 Overview of IT Applications in
Construction
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1 (1)
INTRODUCTION 1 (1)
1.1 THE INFORMATION AGE 1 (2)
1.2 COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY 3 (3)
1.3 COMPUTER NETWORK 6 (5)
1.3.1 Local Area Network/Wide Area Network 7 (2)
1.3.2 Internet 9 (1)
1.3.3 Intranet/Extranet 10 (1)
1.3.4 Virtual Private Network 10 (1)
1.4 CONSTRUCTION AND COMPUTERS 11 (5)
1.4.1 Features of the Construction Industry 11 (1)
1.4.2 The Construction Process 11 (2)
1.4.3 Computerisation in Construction 13 (2)
1.4.4 IT Usage in Construction Team 15 (1)
1.4.5 IT Construction Best Practice 15 (1)
Programme
1.5 OVERVIEW OF CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS 16 (5)
1.5.1 Business and Information Management 17 (1)
1.5.2 Computer Aided Design and 18 (1)
Visualisation
1.5.3 Building Engineering Applications 18 (1)
1.5.4 Computer Aided Cost Estimating 19 (1)
1.5.5 Planning, Scheduling and Site 19 (1)
Management
1.5.6 Computer Aided Facilities Management 20 (1)
1.5.7 Integration 21 (1)
1.5.8 Other Types of Applications 21 (1)
1.6 ON-LINE RESOURCES 21 (3)
SUMMARY 24 (1)
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 24 (1)
CHAPTER 2 Business and Information Management
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 25 (1)
INTRODUCTION 25 (1)
2.1 FUNDAMENTALS OF MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION 26 (4)
2.1.1 Management Theory 26 (1)
2.1.2 Data, Information and Knowledge 26 (1)
2.1.3 Management Information Systems 27 (1)
2.1.4 The Latham and Egan reports 28 (1)
2.1.5 Professional Office Management 28 (2)
2.2 BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING 30 (3)
2.2.1 The Five Forces Model 30 (1)
2.2.2 Changing Requirements and Business 30 (2)
Strategies
2.2.3 Business Transformation 32 (1)
2.2.4 An Example of Partnering 32 (1)
2.3 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT 33 (5)
2.3.1 The Conversion of Knowledge 33 (1)
2.3.2 Process of Knowledge Management 34 (1)
2.3.3 Knowledge Based Systems 35 (1)
2.3.4 The Role of IT in KM 36 (2)
2.4 INFORMATION MANAGEMENT 38 (2)
2.4.1 New Techniques for Managing 38 (1)
Information
2.4.2 Electronic Document Management 39 (1)
2.5 COLLABORATIVE WORKING SYSTEMS 40 (1)
2.6 E-BUSINESS 41 (3)
2.6.1 Growth Patterns 41 (1)
2.6.2 Types of E-business 42 (1)
2.6.3 Portals 43 (1)
2.7 PROCUREMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF IT SYSTEMS 44 (2)
2.7.1 IT System Procurement 44 (1)
2.7.2 IT System Management 45 (1)
2.8 ON-LINE RESOURCES 46 (4)
SUMMARY 50 (1)
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 50 (1)
CHAPTER 3 CAD and Visualisation
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 51 (1)
INTRODUCTION 51 (2)
3.1 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND DRAFTING 53 (1)
3.2 CAD FUNDAMENTALS 54 (2)
3.2.1 The Coordinate Systems 54 (2)
3.2.2 Drawing Environment Settings 56 (1)
3.2.3 Drawing Template 56 (1)
3.3 DRAWING WITH CAD 56 (4)
3.3.1 Creating Objects 56 (1)
3.3.2 Editing 57 (1)
3.3.3 Annotations 58 (1)
3.3.4 Blocks and External References 58 (1)
3.3.5 Grid and Snap 58 (1)
3.3.6 Layering 58 (2)
3.3.7 File Format 60 (1)
3.4 BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS OF 2D CAD 60 (2)
3.5 THREE DIMENSIONAL (3D) MODELLING 62 (2)
3.5.1 Wireframe Model 62 (1)
3.5.2 Surface Model 63 (1)
3.5.3 Solid Model 63 (1)
3.6 VISUALISATION AND ANIMATION 64 (4)
3.6.1 The Visualisation Process 64 (1)
3.6.2 Rendering 65 (2)
3.6.3 Animation 67 (1)
3.7 VIRTUAL REALITY 68 (7)
3.7.1 VR Concept 68 (1)
3.7.2 Different Types of VR 69 (1)
3.7.3 VR Display Systems 69 (4)
3.7.4 VR Input Devices 73 (1)
3.7.5 Virtual Reality Modelling Language 73 (1)
3.7.6 Comparison between VR and Other 74 (1)
Visualisation
3.7.7 VR Applications in Construction 75 (1)
3.8 ON-LINE RESOURCES 75 (3)
SUMMARY 78 (1)
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 78 (1)
CHAPTER 4 Building Engineering Applications
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 79 (1)
INTRODUCTION 79 (1)
4.1 ENGINEERING DESIGN 79 (1)
4.2 BUILDING SIMULATION 80 (1)
4.3 ENERGY ANALYSIS SYSTEMS 81 (2)
4.4 LIGHTING ANALYSIS SYSTEMS 83 (2)
4.5 HVAC DESIGN SYSTEMS 85 (1)
4.6 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 86 (1)
4.7 ON-LINE RESOURCES 87 (3)
SUMMARY 90 (1)
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 91 (1)
CHAPTER 5 Computer Aided Cost Estimating
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 92 (1)
INTRODUCTION 92 (1)
5.1 COST ESTIMATING PRINCIPLES 92 (1)
5.2 UNIT COST ESTIMATING 93 (2)
5.2.1 Quantity Take-off 93 (1)
5.2.2 Labour Costs 94 (1)
5.2.3 Materials, Equipment and 94 (1)
Subcontractors
5.2.4 Indirect Costs 95 (1)
5.2.5 Compilation, Analysis and Reporting 95 (1)
5.3 COMPUTER AIDED ESTIMATING 95 (1)
5.4 SPREADSHEET APPLICATIONS 96 (6)
5.4.1 Basic Concepts 96 (1)
5.4.2 Constructing Formulas 96 (2)
5.4.3 What-if Analysis 98 (1)
5.4.4 Graphic Outputs 99 (1)
5.4.5 Customised Applications 100 (1)
5.4.6 Evaluation of Spreadsheet 100 (2)
5.5 COST ESTIMATING SOFTWARE 102 (6)
5.5.1 Electronic Bill of Quantities 103 (3)
5.5.2 Link BoQ to Cost Libraries 106 (1)
5.5.3 Cost Analysis 107 (1)
5.5.4 Producing Reports 108 (1)
5.6 ON-LINE RESOURCES 108 (2)
SUMMARY 110 (1)
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 111 (1)
CHAPTER 6 Planning, Scheduling and Site
Management
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 112 (1)
INTRODUCTION 112 (1)
6.1 CONCEPTS OF PROJECT PLANNING AND 112 (3)
SCHEDULING
6.1.1 Top Down Planning 112 (1)
6.1.2 Work Package Structure (WPS) 113 (1)
6.1.3 Programming and Scheduling 113 (2)
6.1.4 Resource Allocation 115 (1)
6.2 BUILDING A PLAN USING PROJECT PLANNING 115 (6)
PROGRAMS
6.2.1 Define a Project 116 (1)
6.2.2 Enter a Task List 117 (1)
6.2.3 Schedule Tasks 118 (1)
6.2.4 Assign Resources 119 (1)
6.2.5 Optimise a Plan 120 (1)
6.3 TRACK AND MANAGE A PROJECT 121 (3)
6.3.1 Manage the Schedule 121 (1)
6.3.2 Manage Work 121 (1)
6.3.3 Track Costs 122 (1)
6.3.4 Balance Workload 123 (1)
6.4 SITE MANAGEMENT 124 (2)
6.4.1 Operation Simulation 124 (1)
6.4.2 Site Monitoring 125 (1)
6.4.3 Material Procurement 125 (1)
6.5 MOBILE COMPUTING AND ITS ON-SITE 126 (2)
APPLICATION
6.5.1 Wireless Communication 126 (1)
6.5.2 Applications On-Site 127 (1)
6.6 ON-LINE RESOURCES 128 (2)
SUMMARY 130 (1)
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 131 (1)
CHAPTER 7 Computer Aided Facilities Management
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 132 (1)
INTRODUCTION 132 (1)
7.1 THE ROLE OF FACILITIES MANAGEMENT 133 (1)
7.1.1 Core and Non-core Business Activities 133 (1)
7.1.2 Growth of FM 133 (1)
7.2 COMPUTER AIDED FM 134 (4)
7.2.1 Helpdesk 135 (1)
7.2.2 Asset Management 136 (1)
7.2.3 Space Management 136 (1)
7.2.4 Building Operation Management 137 (1)
7.2.5 Other Functions 138 (1)
7.3 ON-LINE HELPDESK SYSTEM 138 (5)
7.3.1 Deficiencies of Stand Alone Helpdesk 138 (2)
Systems
7.3.2 On-line Systems 140 (3)
7.4 FUTURE TRENDS 143 (1)
7.4.1 Flexible Working 143 (1)
7.4.2 The Future of Facilities Management 144 (1)
7.5 INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS 144 (1)
7.6 ON-LINE RESOURCES 145 (2)
SUMMARY 147 (1)
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 147 (1)
CHAPTER 8 Integration
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 148 (1)
INTRODUCTION 148 (1)
8.1 THE NEED FOR INTEGRATION 149 (1)
8.2 METHODS OF INTEGRATION 150 (2)
8.3 PRODUCT AND PROCESS MODELS 152 (2)
8.3.1 Modelling 152 (1)
8.3.2 Product Models 152 (1)
8.3.3 Process Models 153 (1)
8.4 STANDARDS 154 (3)
8.4.1 Data Model Standards 154 (1)
8.4.2 Data Modelling Standards 155 (1)
8.4.3 Data Mapping Standards 155 (1)
8.4.4 Data Exchange Standards 156 (1)
8.5 INTEGRATED PROJECT DATABASES 157 (1)
8.6 AN EXAMPLE INTEGRATED SYSTEM - GALLICON 158 (6)
8.6.1 The GALLICON System 159 (2)
8.6.2 Design Collaboration Using GALLICON 161 (1)
8.6.3 Benefits of the Integrated System 162 (2)
8.7 ON-LINE RESOURCES 164 (1)
SUMMARY 165 (1)
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 165 (1)
CHAPTER 9 Future Developments
LEARNING OBJECTIVES 166 (1)
INTRODUCTION 166 (1)
9.1 TECHNOLOGY FORESIGHT 166 (7)
9.1.1 High Speed Network and Mobile Network 167 (2)
9.1.2 Pervasive or Ubiquitous Computing 169 (1)
9.1.3 Intelligent Speech Recognition 169 (1)
9.1.4 Telepresence 170 (1)
9.1.5 Computing Grid 170 (2)
9.1.6 Distributed Virtual Environments 172 (1)
9.1.7 Adaptive and Learning Systems 172 (1)
9.2 ACCELERATING CHANGE IN CONSTRUCTION 173 (1)
9.3 VISION OF CONSTRUCTION IT 174 (2)
9.3.1 Questions for a Company Developing a 174 (1)
Vision
9.3.2 A Vision for the Construction Industry 175 (1)
9.3.3 Barriers to Success 175 (1)
9.3.4 Stages in the Development of a Vision 176 (1)
9.4 EMERGING TRENDS 176 (1)
9.5 ON-LINE RESOURCES 177 (2)
CONCLUSION 179 (1)
DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 179 (1)
REFERENCES 180 (4)
INDEX 184