地中海沿岸地域の環境問題<br>Environmental Issues in the Mediterranean : Processes and Perspectives from the Past and Present (Routledge Studies in Physical Geography Andenvironme

地中海沿岸地域の環境問題
Environmental Issues in the Mediterranean : Processes and Perspectives from the Past and Present (Routledge Studies in Physical Geography Andenvironme

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 368 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780415156868
  • DDC分類 363.72091822

Full Description


The Mediterranean has been subject to changing human settlement and land use patterns for millennia, and has a history of human exploitation in an inherently unstable landscape. Environmental Issues in the Mediterranean reviews both physical and social aspects of this region, in relation to its environment.Ideal for students who are studying a range of environmental issues, but want to see them linked within one regional context. The book begins with an introduction to the Mediterranean region, its history, physical and human geography and its environmental problems. It then goes on to examine:* The Dynamic Environment - climate variables and fluctuations, vegetation, the hydrological cycle of the basin and its watershed, processes of erosion, fire and the Mediterranean Sea*The Human Impact on the Environment - prehistoric and historic land use, traditional agriculture, rural and urban settlement and use of mineral resources* The Mediterranean Environment Under Increasing Pressure - the present human landscape, changes in agriculture in the 20th century, the impact of depopulation, pollution, water resources, desertification and potential climatic change.It then concludes with a discussion of the region's on-going environmental issues of water resources, land degradation, agricultural intensification and tourism, and considers how these can be approached using management techniques and national and regional policies.

Table of Contents

List of figures                                    xiii
List of tables xix
List of boxes xxi
Preface xxiii
Acknowledgements xxv
PART 1 Background 1 (56)
1 The Mediterranean region in its context 3 (11)
What and where is the Mediterranean? 4 (6)
Current environmental problems in the 10 (1)
Mediterranean
The long history of environmental issues 11 (1)
in the Mediterranean region
Factors of change 11 (2)
Past and present 13 (1)
Organization of the book 13 (1)
2 The geological setting 14 (43)
Introduction 14 (1)
Volcanic eruptions and their effects 14 (6)
Earthquakes 20 (5)
The plate-tectonic setting of the 25 (22)
Mediterranean
Resources of the Mediterranean lands 47 (9)
Summary 56 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 56 (1)
Topics for discussion 56 (1)
PART 2 The dynamic environment 57 (154)
3 The Mediterranean climate and its 59 (61)
evolution
Meteorology 59 (11)
Climate 70 (16)
Reconstruction of climatic evolution 86 (31)
Summary of recent climatic fluctuations 117 (1)
Summary 118 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 119 (1)
Topics for discussion 119 (1)
4 Vegetation 120 (34)
Introduction 120 (1)
Mediterranean scale 120 (5)
Controls at different spatial scales 125 (6)
Effects of human activity 131 (1)
Development of vegetation through time 131 (18)
Summary of major trends since the late 149 (3)
glacial maximum
Suggestions for further reading 152 (1)
Topics for discussion 153 (1)
5 The hydrological cycle of the Basin and 154 (17)
its watershed
Hillslope hydrology in Mediterranean 154 (2)
environments
Catchment hydrology in Mediterranean 156 (7)
environments
Wetlands 163 (3)
Groundwater 166 (1)
Rivers and channels 166 (3)
Suggestions for further reading 169 (1)
Topics for discussion 170 (1)
6 Erosion processes 171 (22)
Introduction 171 (1)
Controls on erosion by water 171 (4)
Slope-erosion processes 175 (5)
Rates of water erosion 180 (1)
Mass movements 180 (6)
Catchment-scale erosion rates 186 (3)
Controls on erosion by wind 189 (3)
Suggestions for further reading 192 (1)
Topics for discussion 192 (1)
7 Fire 193 (10)
Introduction 193 (1)
Controls on forest fires 193 (1)
Impacts on vegetation patterns 194 (2)
Effects on soil properties 196 (2)
Effects on hydrology and erosion 198 (1)
Summary 199 (3)
Suggestions for further reading 202 (1)
Topics for discussion 202 (1)
8 The Mediterranean Sea 203 (8)
Main issues 203 (1)
The morphology 204 (1)
Effects of circulation on temperature and 204 (4)
salinity
Local circulation 208 (1)
The living Mediterranean 209 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 210 (1)
Topics for discussion 210 (1)
PART 3 The human impact on the environment 211 (88)
9 Background to prehistoric and historic 213 (17)
land use
Introduction 213 (1)
Settlement and land use in the 214 (8)
Palaeolithic and Mesolithic
Population dynamics from the Upper 222 (5)
Palaeolithic to the nineteenth century
General patterns 227 (1)
Summary 227 (2)
Suggestions for further reading 229 (1)
Topics for discussion 229 (1)
10 Traditional land-use patterns 1: 230 (38)
agriculture
Introduction 230 (1)
The origin, spread and intensification of 230 (17)
agriculture
Erosion and agricultural exploitation 247 (10)
Climatic hazards and agriculture 257 (1)
Irrigation 258 (8)
Summary 266 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 267 (1)
Topics for discussion 267 (1)
11 Traditional land-use patterns 2: rural 268 (9)
settlement
Introduction 268 (1)
Agropastoral systems and vertical 268 (3)
settlement patterns
Pastoralisen and soil erosion 271 (1)
Fire 272 (2)
Water resources 274 (1)
Marginality of mountain populations 275 (1)
Summary 275 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 276 (1)
Topics for discussion 276 (1)
12 Traditional land-use patterns 3: urban 277 (16)
settlement
Introduction 277 (1)
Development of urban settlement patterns 278 (6)
Impacts on land use 284 (3)
Control of the water supply 287 (4)
Pollution 291 (1)
Summary 291 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 291 (1)
Topics for discussion 292 (1)
13 Traditional land-use patterns 4: use of 293 (6)
mineral resources
Introduction 293 (1)
Mineral sources and their use 293 (2)
Impacts of quarrying and minim 295 (2)
Summary 297 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 297 (1)
Topics for discussion 297 (2)
PART 4 The Mediterranean environment under 299 (112)
increasing pressure
14 The present human landscape 301 (18)
Introduction 301 (1)
Population dynamics in the twentieth 302 (4)
century
Urbanization 306 (2)
Industrialization 308 (2)
The development of tourism 310 (2)
The Mediterranean and the EU 312 (2)
The Blue Plan and its projections 314 (3)
Summary 317 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 318 (1)
Topics for discussion 318 (1)
15 Agricultural changes in the twentieth 319 (19)
century
Introduction 319 (1)
Intensification, mechanization and their 319 (14)
consequences
Soil impoverishment and salinization 333 (2)
Into the twenty-first century: potential 335 (2)
impacts of future projections
Summary 337 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 337 (1)
Topics for discussion 337 (1)
16 The impact of depopulation 338 (7)
Introduction 338 (1)
Upland and 'marginal' areas 338 (4)
Impacts of future projections 342 (2)
Summary 344 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 344 (1)
Topics for discussion 344 (1)
17 Pollution 345 (9)
Introduction 345 (1)
Soil pollution 345 (1)
Water pollution 346 (1)
Industrial development and pollution - an 346 (2)
example from Spain
Marine pollution 348 (2)
Protecting the Mediterranean Sea 350 (3)
Suggestions for further reading 353 (1)
Topics for discussion 353 (1)
18 Water resources 354 (16)
Introduction 354 (1)
A brief overview of water management 354 (1)
through time in Spain and Tunisia
Water budgets 355 (6)
Groundwater 361 (3)
Salinization 364 (2)
Dry farming 366 (1)
Irrigation 366 (1)
Consumptive use 367 (1)
A case study from southern Spain 367 (2)
Summary 369 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 369 (1)
Topics for discussion 369 (1)
19 The desertification problem 370 (10)
Desertification: myth or reality? 370 (1)
Mediterranean desertification 371 (3)
The role of the European Community 374 (1)
What can be done? 375 (2)
Land care? 377 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 378 (1)
Topics for discussion 379 (1)
20 Potential climatic change and its effects 380 (16)
Introduction 380 (1)
Estimating potential future climatic 381 (4)
change
Effects of predicted climatic change on 385 (1)
the hydrological regime
Effects of predicted climatic change on 386 (2)
vegetation
Effects of predicted climatic change on 388 (2)
soils and soil erosion
Impacts of potential sea-level rise in 390 (2)
the coastal zone
Other potential impacts 392 (1)
Effects of predicted climatic change on 392 (1)
human health
Linking potential impacts of climate 393 (1)
change with socio-economic changes
Summary 394 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 394 (1)
Topics for discussion 395 (1)
21 Key issues for mitigation 396 (15)
Temporal variability 396 (1)
Spatial variability 396 (1)
Historical antecedents 397 (1)
Complicated and complex impacts 397 (1)
Management, scale and sustainability 398 (1)
Water 398 (1)
Agenda 21 399 (1)
Canons of Mediterranean environmental 399 (1)
management
Frameworks for action 400 (10)
The future 410 (1)
Suggestions for further reading 410 (1)
Topics for discussion 410 (1)
Bibliography 411 (58)
Index 469