Sources in the History of the Modern Middle East

Sources in the History of the Modern Middle East

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  • 商品コード 9780395980675
  • DDC分類 956.04

Full Description


This unique primary source reader provides first-hand accounts of the events described in Middle Eastern history survey texts. The text is organized into ten chapters featuring chapter introductions and headnotes. The primary source documents cover the late 18th through the 20th centuries, exploring political, social, economic, and cultural history and infusing the volume with the voices of real people.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            x
INTRODUCTION: How to Read a Primary Source 1
PART I The Middle East and North Africa in 7 (102)
the Nineteenth Century
CHAPTER 1 Central Political Reforms and 10 (28)
Local Responses
1. The Hatt-I-Serif Decree Initiates the 11 (3)
Tanzimat, or Reform, Period in the
Ottoman Empire, November 3, 1839
2. Sultan Abdul Majid's Islahat Fermani 14 (5)
Decree Reaffirms the Privileges and
Immunities of Non-Muslim Communities in
the Ottoman Empire, February 18, 1856
3. An Ottoman Government Decree Defines 19 (2)
the Official Notion of the "Modern"
Citizen, June 19, 1870
4. Mirza Malkum Khan Satirizes Iran's 21 (8)
Central Government and Religious Elites,
1880's
5. Jamal al-Din Al-Afghani Answers Ernest 29 (6)
Renan's Criticism of Islam, May 18, 1883
6. Baghdadi Jews React to the 35 (3)
Modernization of the Ottoman Empire, May
28, 1908
CHAPTER 2 Economic Changes 38 (28)
1. The Treaty of Peace and Commerce 40 (8)
(Treaty of Turkmanchai) Between Iran and
Russia, February 10-22,1828
2. The Treaty of Balta Liman Gives the 48 (3)
British Economic Advantages Within the
Ottoman Empire, August 16, 1838
3. An Egyptian Khedival Decree 51 (3)
Establishes a European-Controlled Public
Debt Administration, May 2, 1876
4. Convention on Free Navigation of the 54 (3)
Suez Canal Between the European Powers
and the Ottomans Empire, October 29, 1888
5. The Concession for the Imperial Bank 57 (5)
in Iran, January 30, 1889
6. The Concession for the Tobacco 62 (2)
Monopoly in Iran, March 8, 1890
7. Tobacco Smuggling and the French Regie 64 (2)
Monopoly in the Ottoman Empire, 1895
CHAPTER 3 Social and Cultural Reformulations 66 (43)
1. Rifa'a Tahtawi Reflects on Paris, Its 67 (3)
People, Their Ideas, and Lives in the
1820's
2. Anis al-Jalis, an Egyptian Magazine, 70 (4)
Defines a Vision of Women and Their Role
in Society, 1899
3. Qasim Amin Argues for the Emancipation 74 (9)
of Women in Egypt, 1900
4. Teachers of the Alliance Israelite 83 (6)
Universelle Write About Child Marriages,
Domestic Violence, and the Treatment of
Children Among Jews in North Africa,
1902-1915
5. Articles in Iranian Magazines 89 (2)
Emphasize the Link Between the Education
of Girls and the Advancement of Iranian
Society, 1907, 1909
6. Bahithat al-Badiya Advocates Greater 91 (9)
Educational and Economic Rights for
Egyptian Women, 1909
7. Nazira Zein el-Din, an Egyptian 100 (9)
Feminist, Comments on the Unveiling and
Veiling of Women, 1928
PART II Making Nations in the Middle East, 109 (138)
1900-1949
CHAPTER 4 Ideas of Nationalism 112 (70)
1. Leo Pinsker, a Jewish Intellectual, 114 (7)
Proposes a "Jewish Homeland," 1882
2. Ahad Ha-Am's "The Jewish State and the 121 (7)
Jewish Problem," a Counterargument to the
Idea of a Jewish State, 1897
3. The Husayn-McMahon Correspondence, 128 (3)
Negotiating the Establishment of an "Arab
Kingdom" in the Middle East, 1915
4. The Balfour Declaration, Stating the 131 (5)
British Government's Support for a Jewish
Homeland in Palestine, and Discussions
Leading to Issuing It in 1917
5. Division of the Ottoman Empire: The 136 (9)
Treaty of Sevres, August 10, 1920
6. Mustafa Kemal ("Ataturk ") Outlines 145 (7)
His Vision of the Recent Nationalist Past
of Turkey and the Future of the Country,
1927
7. 'Ali 'Abd al-Raziq, an Egyptian 152 (7)
Religious Scholar, Argues for the
Separation of State and Religion, 1928
8. The Program of L'Etoile 159 (3)
Nord-Africaine: Full Independence for
Algeria, May 28, 1933
9. Antun Sa'adeh Declares His Vision of 162 (4)
"Greater Syria" or Regional Nationalism,
June 1, 1935
10. Taha Husayn Writes of Egypt as a 166 (4)
Mixture of Pharaonic, Arab, and Western
Cultures, 1938
11. Syrian Michel 'Aflaq Addresses the 170 (5)
Relationship Between Arabism and Islam,
1943
12. Hasan al-Banna Proclaims Egyptian 175 (7)
Nationalism and the Religious Basis for
an Islamic State, 1949
CHAPTER 5 Contested Nationalisms 182 (65)
1. Henry Morgenthau Recounts Aspects of 184 (9)
Nationalist-Driven Ethnic Cleansing of
Armenians in Turkey, 1915
2. The Zionist Organization's Memorandum 193 (7)
to the Peace Conference in Versailles
Asks for Support for the Establishment of
a Jewish State in Palestine, February 3,
1919
3. The Resolution of the General Syrian 200 (3)
Congress at Damascus Proclaims Arab
Sovereignty over Greater Syria, July 2,
1919
4. The American King-Crane Commission 203 (6)
Report Summarizes the Popular Ideas of
Nationalism in the Middle East, 1919
5. A Writer for al-Asima, the Syrian 209 (2)
Government Newspaper, Seeks to Establish
the Popular Idea of the "Nation," October
23, 1919
6. Women and the Vote in Syria: A 211 (8)
Parliamentary Debate About the
Relationship Between Gender and
Citizenship in the Proposed State, April
25, 1920
7. Ferhat Abbas Appeals for the Equality 219 (3)
of Muslim Algerians and French Algerians,
February 23, 1936
8. The Projet Blum-Violette: The Proposed 222 (3)
Enfranchisement of Muslims in Algeria,
1936
9. Shaykh Ben Badis Pronounces a Fatwa 225 (2)
(Religious Edict) Against the French
"Naturalization" of Algerians, August 10,
1937
10. Nationalism and the Jewish Community 227(4)
in Tunisia, March 5, 1938
11. The Contest for Alexandretta Between 231(2)
Syria and Turkey, May 1938
12. The Arab Case for Palestine and the 233 (10)
Case for a Binational State, March 1946
13. President Harry Truman's Statement 243 (4)
Supporting Jewish Immigration into
Palestine, October 4, 1946
PART III The Rise of Postindependence 247(68)
States, 1950-2000
CHAPTER 6 Restricting Authority 250(26)
1. Asadollah Alam's Diary Details Some 252 (11)
Elements of the Shah of Iran's Rule in
1976 and 1977
2. Iraq's Saddam Hussein Proclaims 263(4)
History as a Tool for Educating the
Masses About the Revolution and Comments
on the Role of Women in the Revolution,
1975, 1978
3. The Constitution of Saudi Arabia Bases 267(4)
the Legitimacy of the Ruling House of
Saud on Religion, 1992
4. Human Rights Activist Yilmaz Ensaroglu 271 (5)
Discusses the Role of the Army in Turkey,
1997
CHAPTER 7 Crisis of the State 276 (39)
1. Egyptian President Abdel Nasser 278(4)
Resigns from Office Following the 1967
Arab-Israeli War, June 9, 1967
2. Sadiq al-'Azm, an Arab Intellectual, 282(4)
Critiques the Arab State and Clergy for
Their Use of Religion, 1968
3. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Denounces 286 (3)
the Rule of the Shah of Iran, 1975
4. Documents About One of the Major 289 (9)
Political Arguments Underlying the
Lebanese Civil War, 1975
5. American Consular Documents Reveal 298(4)
U.S. Diplomats' Assessment of the
Revolution in Iran, 1978
6. The Massacre of the Muslim Brothers of 302(4)
Syria in Hama, 1982
7. The Platform of the Islamic Salvation 306 (3)
Front in Algiers Bases Its Ideology on
Respect for Islamic Values, June 18, 1995
8. Report on Arab Israelis: Breaking the 309 (6)
Stranglehold of Alienation, October 27,
2000
PART IV The Middle East Today 315
CHAPTER 8 Islamic Political Movements Since 320 (52)
1964
1. Egyptian Writer Sayyid Qutb 323 (8)
Articulates a New, Influential Vision of
Jihad, 1964
2. Iranian Intellectual Ali Shari'ati 331 (9)
Examines Man from the Viewpoint of Islam,
1968
3. Iranian Liberal Mehdi Bazargan 340 (5)
Advocates Freedom as a Vital Necessity
for Government and Religion, 1974
4. Moroccan Feminist Fatima Mernissi 345 (7)
Argues That Islam Has Been Misinterpreted
on the Subject of the Position of Women,
1988
5. Egyptian Editorialist Farag Foda 352 (7)
Critiques Islamic Movements in Egypt,
1989 and 1992
6. Islamic Fundamentalist Usama Bin Laden 359 (7)
Calls on Muslims to Take Up Arms Against
America, 1998
7. Reflections on the Terrorist Attacks 366 (6)
of September 11, 2001
CHAPTER 9 Subaltern Groups 372 (38)
1. The Arab Women's Court Vows to Resist 374 (6)
Violence Against Women, 1995 and 1998
2. Internet Discussion of Marriage and 380 (4)
Education for Saudi Women, 1996
3. Grassroots Environmental Movements in 384 (5)
Egypt and Turkey, 1997 and 2000
4. The Imazighen (Berbers) of Algeria 389 (2)
Decry the Pronouncement of the Country as
"Arab," 1998
5. A Kurdish Activist's Letter Appealing 391 (3)
to Berna Yilmaz, the Spouse of the
Turkish Prime Minister, September 27, 1998
6. Journalist Lilian Liang Discusses 394 (3)
Homosexuality in Egypt, 1999
7. Arab and Israeli Soccer Players 397(5)
Discuss Ethnic Relations in Israel, 2000
8. Self-Reflection by the Communist Party 402 (8)
of Iran, 2001
CHAPTER 10 The Future of the Middle East 410
and North Africa
1. Selection from a Roundtable Discussion 411 (5)
of Globalization and Its Impact on Arab
Culture, October 26, 2000
2. Lebanese Author Elias Khoury Argues 416
for Democracy, Demilitarization, and
Cultural Pluralism in the Middle East and
North Africa, 2000