セラミック材料:科学と工学<br>Ceramic Materials : Science and Engineering

セラミック材料:科学と工学
Ceramic Materials : Science and Engineering

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 1,200 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780387462707

基本説明

Combines the treatment of bioceramics, furnaces, glass, optics, pores, gemstones, and point defects in a single text.

Full Description


Ceramic Materialsceramic science, engineering, and applications in a single, integrated text. Building on a foundation of crystal structures, phase equilibria, defects and the mechanical properties of ceramic materials, students are shown how these materials are processed for a broad diversity of applications in today's society. Concepts such as how and why ions move, how ceramics interact with light and magnetic fields, and how they respond to temperature changes are discussed in the context of their applications. References to the art and history of ceramics are included throughout the text. The text concludes with discussions of ceramics in biology and medicine, ceramics as gemstones and the role of ceramics in the interplay between industry and the environment. Extensively illustrated, the text also includes questions for the student and recommendations for additional reading.KEY FEATURES: Combines the treatment of bioceramics, furnaces, glass, optics, pores, gemstones, and point defects in a single text Provides abundant examples and illustrations relating theory to practical applications Suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate teaching and as a reference for researchers in materials science Written by established and successful teachers and authors with experience in both research and industry

Table of Contents

Preface                                            vii
PART I HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION
Introduction 3 (12)
Definitions 3 (1)
General Properties 4 (1)
Types of Ceramic and their Applications 5 (1)
Market 6 (1)
Critical Issues for the Future 7 (1)
Relationship between Microstructure, 8 (1)
Processing and Properties
Safety 9 (1)
Ceramics on the Internet 10 (1)
On Units 10 (5)
Some History 15 (20)
Earliest Ceramics: The Stone Age 15 (2)
Ceramics in Ancient Civilizations 17 (2)
Clay 19 (1)
Types of Pottery 19 (1)
Glazes 20 (1)
Development of a Ceramics Industry 21 (1)
Plaster and Cement 22 (2)
Brief History of Glass 24 (1)
Brief History of Refractories 25 (1)
Major Landmarks of the Twentieth Century 26 (2)
Museums 28 (1)
Societies 29 (1)
Ceramic Education 29 (6)
PART II MATERIALS
Background You Need to Know 35 (16)
The Atom 35 (1)
Energy Levels 36 (1)
Electron Waves 37 (1)
Quantum Numbers 37 (2)
Assigning Quantum Numbers 39 (3)
Ions 42 (2)
Electronegativity 44 (1)
Thermodynamics: The Driving Force for 45 (2)
Change
Kinetics: The Speed of Change 47 (4)
Bonds and Energy Bands 51 (20)
Types of Interatomic Bond 51 (1)
Young's Modulus 51 (2)
Ionic Bonding 53 (5)
Covalcnt Bonding 58 (5)
Metallic Bonding in Ceramics 63 (1)
Mixed Bonding 64 (1)
Secondary Bonding 64 (2)
Electron Energy Bands in Ceramics 66 (5)
Models, Crystals, and Chemistry 71 (16)
Terms and Definitions 71 (3)
Symmetry and Crystallography 74 (1)
Lattice Points, Directions, and Planes 75 (1)
The Importance of Crystallography 76 (1)
Pauling's Rules 76 (3)
Close-Packed Arrangements: Interstitial 79 (2)
Sites
Notation for Crystal Structures 81 (1)
Structure, Composition, and Temperature 81 (1)
Crystals, Glass, Solids, and Liquid 82 (1)
Defects 83 (1)
Computer Modeling 83 (4)
Binary Compounds 87 (13)
Background 87 (1)
CsCl 88 (1)
NaCl (MgO, TiC, PbS) 88 (1)
GaAs (β-SiC) 89 (1)
AlN (BeO, ZnO) 90 (1)
CaF2 91 (1)
FeS2 92 (1)
Cu2O 93 (1)
CuO 93 (1)
TiO2 93 (1)
Al2O3 94 (1)
MoS2 and CdI2 95 (1)
Polymorphs, Polytypes, and Polytypoids 96 (4)
Complex Crystal and Glass Structures 100(20)
Introduction 100(1)
Spinel 101(1)
Perovskite 102(2)
The Silicates and Structures Based on SiO4 104(1)
Silica 105(1)
Olivine 106(1)
Garnets 107(1)
Ring Silicates 107(1)
Micas and Other Layer Materials 108(1)
Clay Minerals 109(1)
Pyroxene 109(1)
β-Aluminas and Related Materials 110(1)
Calcium Aluminate and Related Materials 111(1)
Mullite 111(1)
Monazite 111(1)
YBa2Cu3O7 and Related High-Temperature 112(1)
Superconductors (HTSCs)
Si3N4, SiAlONs, and Related Materials 113(1)
Fullerenes and Nanotubes 113(1)
Zeolites and Microporous Compounds 114(1)
Zachariasen's Rules for the Structure of 115(2)
Glass
Revisiting Glass Structures 117(3)
Equilibrium Phase Diagrams 120(19)
What's Special about Ceramics? 120(1)
Determining Phase Diagrams 121(3)
Phase Diagrams for Ceramists: The Books 124(1)
Gibbs Phase Rule 124(1)
One Component (C = 1) 125(1)
Two Components (C = 2) 126(2)
Three and More Components 128(2)
Composition with Variable Oxygen Partial 130(2)
Pressure
Quaternary Diagrams and Temperature 132(1)
Congruent and Incongruent Melting 132(1)
Miscibility Gaps in Glass 133(6)
PART III TOOLS
Furnaces 139(15)
The Need for High Temperatures 139(1)
Types of Furnace 139(1)
Combustion Furnaces 140(1)
Electrically Heated Furnaces 141(1)
Batch or Continuous Operation 141(2)
Indirect Heating 143(1)
Heating Elements 144(2)
Refractories 146(1)
Furniture, Tubes, and Crucibles 147(1)
Firing Process 148(1)
Heat Transfer 148(1)
Measuring Temperature 149(2)
Safety 151(3)
Characterizing Structure, Defects, and 154(27)
Chemistry
Characterizing Ceramics 154(1)
Imaging Using Visible-Light, IR, and UV 155(2)
Imaging Using X-rays and CT Scans 157(1)
Imaging in the SEM 158(1)
Imaging in the TEM 159(2)
Scanning-Probe Microscopy 161(1)
Scattering and Diffraction Techniques 162(1)
Photon Scattering 163(1)
Raman and IR Spectroscopy 163(2)
NMR Spectroscopy and Spectrometry 165(1)
Mossbauer Spectroscopy and Spectrometry 166(2)
Diffraction in the EM 168(1)
Ion Scattering (RBS) 168(1)
X-ray Diffraction and Databases 169(2)
Neutron Scattering 171(1)
Mass Spectrometry 172(1)
Spectrometry in the EM 172(2)
Electron Spectroscopy 174(1)
Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) 175(1)
Thermal Analysis 175(6)
PART IV DEFECTS
Point Defects, Charge, and Diffusion 181(20)
Are Defects in Ceramics Different? 181(1)
Types of Point Defects 182(1)
What Is Special for Ceramics? 183(1)
What Type of Defects Form? 184(1)
Equilibrium Defect Concentrations 184(2)
Writing Equations for Point Defects 186(1)
Solid Solutions 187(2)
Association of Point Defects 189(1)
Color Centers 190(1)
Creation of Point Defects in Ceramics 191(1)
Experimental Studies of Point Defects 192(1)
Diffusion 192(1)
Diffusion in Impure, or Doped, Ceramics 193(4)
Movement of Defects 197(1)
Diffusion and Ionic Conductivity 197(2)
Computing 199(2)
Are Dislocations Unimportant? 201(23)
A Quick Review of Dislocations 202(4)
Summary of Dislocation Properties 206(1)
Observation of Dislocations 206(2)
Dislocations in Ceramics 208(1)
Structure of the Core 208(3)
Detailed Geometry 211(3)
Defects on Dislocations 214(1)
Dislocations and Diffusion 215(1)
Movement of Dislocations 216(1)
Multiplication of Dislocations 216(1)
Dislocation Interactions 217(2)
At the Surface 219(1)
Indentation, Scratching, and Cracks 219(1)
Dislocations with Different Cores 220(4)
Surfaces, Nanoparticles, and Foams 224(22)
Background to Surfaces 224(1)
Ceramic Surfaces 225(1)
Surface Energy 225(2)
Surface Structure 227(3)
Curved Surfaces and Pressure 230(1)
Capillarity 230(1)
Wetting and Dewetting 231(1)
Foams 232(1)
Epitaxy and Film Growth 233(1)
Film Growth in 2D: Nucleation 233(1)
Film Growth in 2D: Mechanisms 234(1)
Characterizing Surfaces 235(4)
Steps 239(1)
In Situ 240(1)
Surfaces and Nanoparticles 241(1)
Computer Modeling 241(1)
Introduction to Properties 242(4)
Interfaces in Polycrystals 246(23)
What Are Grain Boundaries? 246(2)
For Ceramics 248(1)
GB Energy 249(2)
Low-Angle GBs 251(3)
High-Angle GBs 254(1)
Twin Boundaries 255(3)
General Boundaries 258(1)
GB Films 259(3)
Triple Junctions and GB Grooves 262(1)
Characterizing GBs 263(1)
GBs in Thin Films 264(1)
Space Charge and Charged Boundaries 265(1)
Modeling 265(1)
Some Properties 265(4)
Phase Boundaries, Particles, and Pores 269(20)
The Importance 269(1)
Different Types 269(1)
Compared to Other Materials 270(1)
Energy 270(1)
The Structure of PBs 271(1)
Particles 272(4)
Use of Particles 276(1)
Nucleation and Growth of Particles 276(1)
Pores 277(1)
Measuring Porosity 278(1)
Porous Ceramics 279(1)
Glass/Crystal Phase Boundaries 280(1)
Eutectics 281(1)
Metal/Ceramic PBs 282(1)
Forming PBs by Joining 283(6)
PART V MECHANICAL STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS
Mechanical Testing 289(20)
Philosophy 289(2)
Types of Testing 291(1)
Elastic Constants and Other ``Constants'' 292(2)
Effect of Microstructure on Elastic Moduli 294(1)
Test Temperature 295(1)
Test Environment 296(1)
Testing in Compression and Tension 296(1)
Three- and Four-Point Bending 297(1)
Klc from Bend Test 298(1)
Indentation 299(1)
Fracture Toughness from Indentation 300(1)
Nanoindentation 301(1)
Ultrasonic Testing 301(1)
Design and Statistics 302(3)
SPT Diagrams 305(4)
Deforming: Plasticity 309(16)
Plastic Deformation 309(1)
Dislocation Glide 310(2)
Slip in Alumina 312(1)
Plastic Deformation in Single Crystals 313(1)
Plastic Deformation in Polycrystals 314(1)
Dislocation Velocity and Pinning 315(2)
Creep 317(1)
Dislocation Creep 317(1)
Diffusion-Controlled Creep 318(1)
Grain-Boundary Sliding 318(1)
Tertiary Creep and Cavitation 319(2)
Creep Deformation Maps 321(1)
Viscous Flow 321(1)
Superplasticity 322(3)
Fracturing: Brittleness 325(20)
The Importance of Brittleness 325(1)
Theoretical Strength: The Orowan Equation 326(1)
The Effect of Flaws: The Griffith Equation 327(2)
The Crack Tip: The Inglis Equation 329(1)
Stress Intensity Factor 329(1)
R Curves 330(1)
Fatigue and Stress Corrosion Cracking 331(1)
Failure and Fractography 332(3)
Toughening and Ceramic Matrix Composites 335(3)
Machinable Glass-Ceramics 338(1)
Wear 338(1)
Grinding and Polishing 339(6)
PART VI PROCESSING
Raw Materials 345(14)
Geology, Minerals, and Ores 345(1)
Mineral Formation 345(2)
Beneficiation 347(1)
Weights and Measures 347(1)
Silica 348(1)
Silicates 348(3)
Oxides 351(3)
Nonoxides 354(5)
Powders, Fibers, Platelets, and Composites 359(20)
Making Powders 359(1)
Types of Powders 360(1)
Mechanical Milling 360(2)
Spray Drying 362(1)
Powders by Sol-Gel Processing 363(1)
Powders by Precipitation 363(1)
Chemical Routes to Nonoxide Powders 364(1)
Platelets 365(1)
Nanopowders by Vapor-Phase Reactions 365(1)
Characterizing Powders 366(1)
Characterizing Powders by Microscopy 366(1)
Sieving 366(1)
Sedimentation 367(1)
The Coulter Counter 368(1)
Characterizing Powders by Light Scattering 368(1)
Characterizing Powders by X-ray 369(1)
Diffraction
Measuring Surface Area (the BET Method) 369(1)
Determining Particle Composition and 370(1)
Purity
Making Fibers and Whiskers 370(1)
Oxide Fibers 371(1)
Whiskers 372(1)
Glass Fibers 372(1)
Coating Fibers 373(1)
Making Ceramic-Matrix Composites 374(1)
Ceramic-Matrix Composites from Powders 374(1)
and Slurries
Ceramic-Matrix Composites by Infiltration 375(1)
In Situ Processes 375(4)
Glass and Glass-Ceramics 379(21)
Definitions 379(1)
History 380(3)
Viscosity, η 383(2)
Glass: A Summary of Its Properties, or Not 385(1)
Defects in Glass 386(1)
Heterogeneous Glass 386(1)
Yttrium-Aluminum Glass 386(1)
Coloring Glass 386(2)
Glass Laser 388(1)
Precipitates in Glass 388(1)
Crystallizing Glass 388(2)
Glass as Glaze and Enamel 390(2)
Corrosion of Glass and Glaze 392(1)
Types of Ceramic Glasses 393(1)
Natural Glass 394(2)
The Physics of Glass 396(4)
Sols, Gels, and Organic Chemistry 400(12)
Sol-Gel Processing 400(1)
Structure and Synthesis of Alkoxides 401(1)
Properties of Alkoxides 402(1)
The Sol-Gel Process Using Metal Alkoxides 403(3)
Characterization of the Sol-Gel Process 406(1)
Powders, Coatings, Fibers, Crystalline, 407(5)
or Glass
Shaping and Forming 412(15)
The Words 412(1)
Binders and Plasticizers 413(1)
Slip and Slurry 413(1)
Dry Pressing 414(1)
Hot Pressing 414(1)
Cold Isostatic Pressing 415(1)
Hot Isostatic Pressing 416(1)
Slip Casting 417(1)
Extrusion 418(1)
Injection Molding 419(1)
Rapid Prototyping 420(1)
Green Machining 420(1)
Binder Burnout 421(1)
Final Machining 421(1)
Making Porous Ceramics 422(1)
Shaping Pottery 422(1)
Shaping Glass 423(4)
Sintering and Grain Growth 427(17)
The Sintering Process 427(2)
The Terminology of Sintering 429(1)
Capillary Forces and Surface Forces 429(1)
Sintering Spheres and Wires 429(2)
Grain Growth 431(1)
Sintering and Diffusion 431(2)
Liquid-Phase Sintering 433(1)
Hot Pressing 433(1)
Pinning Grain Boundaries 434(1)
More Grain Growth 435(1)
Grain Boundaries, Surfaces, and Sintering 436(1)
Exaggerated Grain Growth 437(1)
Fabricating Complex Shapes 438(1)
Pottery 439(1)
Pores and Porous Ceramics 439(1)
Sintering with Two and Three Phases 440(1)
Examples of Sintering in Action 441(1)
Computer Modeling 441(3)
Solid-State Phase Transformations and 444(19)
Reactions
Transformations and Reactions: The Link 444(1)
The Terminology 445(1)
Technology 445(2)
Phase Transformations without Changing 447(1)
Chemistry
Phase Transformations Changing Chemistry 448(1)
Methods for Studying Kinetics 449(1)
Diffusion through a Layer: Slip Casting 450(1)
Diffusion through a Layer: Solid-State 451(1)
Reactions
The Spinel-Forming Reaction 451(1)
Inert Markers and Reaction Barriers 452(1)
Simplified Darken Equation 453(1)
The Incubation Period 454(1)
Particle Growth and the Effect of Misfit 454(1)
Thin-Film Reactions 455(2)
Reactions in an Electric Field 457(1)
Phase Transformations Involving Glass 458(1)
Pottery 459(1)
Cement 459(1)
Reactions Involving a Gas Phase 460(1)
Curved Interfaces 461(2)
Processing Glass and Glass-Ceramics 463(18)
The Market for Glass and Glass Products 463(1)
Processing Bulk Glasses 463(4)
Bubbles 467(1)
Flat Glass 468(1)
Float-Glass 469(1)
Glassblowing 470(2)
Coating Glass 472(1)
Safety Glass 473(1)
Foam Glass 473(1)
Sealing Glass 473(1)
Enamel 474(1)
Photochromic Glass 474(1)
Ceramming: Changing Glass to 474(2)
Glass-Ceramics
Glass for Art and Sculpture 476(2)
Glass for Science and Engineering 478(3)
Coatings and Thick Films 481(13)
Defining Thick Film 481(1)
Tape Casting 481(3)
Dip Coating 484(1)
Spin Coating 484(1)
Spraying 485(1)
Electrophoretic Deposition 486(2)
Thick-Film Circuits 488(6)
Thin Films and Vapor Deposition 494(13)
The Difference between Thin Films and 494(1)
Thick Films
Acronyms, Adjectives, and Hyphens 494(1)
Requirements for Thin Ceramic Films 495(1)
Chemical Vapor Deposition 495(2)
Thermodynamics of Chemical Vapor 497(1)
Deposition
Chemical Vapor Deposition of Ceramic 498(1)
Films for Semiconductor Devices
Types of Chemical Vapor Deposition 499(1)
Chemical Vapor Deposition Safety 500(1)
Evaporation 500(1)
Sputtering 501(1)
Molecular-Beam Epitaxy 502(1)
Pulsed-Laser Deposition 503(1)
Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition 504(1)
Substrates 504(3)
Growing Single Crystals 507(22)
Why Single Crystals? 507(1)
A Brief History of Growing Ceramic Single 507(1)
Crystals
Methods for Growing Single Crystals of 508(1)
Ceramics
Melt Technique: Verneuil (Flame-Fusion) 509(2)
Melt Technique: Arc-Image Growth 511(1)
Melt Technique: Czochralski 511(3)
Melt Technique: Skull Melting 514(1)
Melt Technique: Bridgman-Stockbarger 515(1)
Melt Technique: Heat-Exchange Method 516(1)
Applying Phase Diagrams to Single-Crystal 516(1)
Growth
Solution Technique: Hydrothermal 517(2)
Solution Technique: Hydrothermal Growth 519(1)
at Low Temperature
Solution Technique: Flux Growth 519(2)
Solution Technique: Growing Diamonds 521(1)
Vapor Technique: Vapor-Liquid-Solid 521(1)
Vapor Technique: Sublimation 522(1)
Preparing Substrates for Thin-Film 522(1)
Applications
Growing Nanowires and Nanotubes by 522(7)
Vapor-Liquid-Solid and Not
PART VII PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS
Conducting Charge or Not 529(27)
Ceramics as Electrical Conductors 529(2)
Conduction Mechanisms in Ceramics 531(1)
Number of Conduction Electrons 532(1)
Electron Mobility 533(1)
Effect of Temperature 533(1)
Ceramics with Metal-Like Conductivity 534(1)
Applications for High-σ Ceramics 535(2)
Semiconducting Ceramics 537(2)
Examples of Extrinsic Semiconductors 539(1)
Varistors 540(1)
Thermistors 541(1)
Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors 542(1)
Ion Conduction 543(1)
Fast Ion Conductors 543(1)
Batteries 544(1)
Fuel Cells 544(2)
Ceramic Insulators 546(2)
Substrates and Packages for Integrated 548(1)
Circuits
Insulating Layers in Integrated Circuits 549(1)
Superconductivity 550(1)
Ceramic Superconductors 551(5)
Locally Redistributing Charge 556(19)
Background on Dielectrics 556(4)
Ferroelectricity 560(2)
BaTiO3: The Prototypical Ferroelectric 562(3)
Solid Solutions with BaTiO3 565(1)
Other Ferroelectric Ceramics 565(1)
Relaxor Dielectrics 565(1)
Ceramic Capacitors 565(3)
Ceramic Ferroelectrics for Memory 568(1)
Applications
Piezoelectricity 569(1)
Lead Zirconate-Lead Titanate (PZT) Solid 570(1)
Solutions
Applications for Piezoelectric Ceramics 571(1)
Piezoelectric Materials for 572(1)
Microelectromechanical Systems
Pyroelectricity 572(1)
Applications for Pyroelectric Ceramics 573(2)
Interacting with and Generating Light 575(23)
Some Background for Optical Ceramics 575(2)
Transparency 577(1)
The Refractive Index 578(1)
Reflection from Ceramic Surfaces 579(1)
Color in Ceramics 580(1)
Coloring Glass and Glazes 581(1)
Ceramic Pigments and Stains 581(2)
Translucent Ceramics 583(1)
Lamp Envelopes 584(1)
Fluorescence 585(1)
The Basics of Optical Fibers 586(2)
Phosphors and Emitters 588(1)
Solid-State Lasers 589(1)
Electrooptic Ceramics for Optical Devices 590(4)
Reacting to Other Parts of the Spectrum 594(1)
Optical Ceramics in Nature 595(3)
Using Magnetic Fields and Storing Data 598(21)
A Brief History of Magnetic Ceramics 598(1)
Magnetic Dipoles 599(1)
The Basic Equations, the Words, and the 600(1)
Units
The Five Classes of Magnetic Material 601(1)
Diamagnetic Ceramics 601(1)
Superconducting Magnets 602(1)
Paramagnetic Ceramics 603(1)
Measuring χ 604(1)
Ferromagnetism 604(1)
Antiferromagnetism and Colossal 605(1)
Magnetoresistance
Ferrimagnetism 606(3)
Estimating the Magnetization of 609(1)
Ferrimagnets
Magnetic Domains and Bloch Walls 609(1)
Imaging Magnetic Domains 610(1)
Motion of Domain Walls and Hysteresis 611(1)
Loops
Hard and Soft Ferrites 612(2)
Microwave Ferrites 614(1)
Data Storage and Recording 614(2)
Magnetic Nanoparticles 616(3)
Responding to Temperature Changes 619(16)
Summary of Terms and Units 619(1)
Absorption and Heat Capacity 619(2)
Melting Temperatures 621(2)
Vaporization 623(1)
Thermal Conductivity 624(2)
Measuring Thermal Conductivity 626(1)
Microstructure and Thermal Conductivity 626(2)
Using High Thermal Conductivity 628(1)
Thermal Expansion 628(2)
Effect of Crystal Structure on α 630(1)
Thermal Expansion Measurment 631(1)
Importance of Matching αs 632(1)
Applications for Low-α 632(1)
Thermal Shock 633(2)
Ceramics in Biology and Medicine 635(17)
What Are Bioceramics? 635(1)
Advantages and Disadvantages of Ceramics 636(2)
Ceramic Implants and the Structure of Bone 638(1)
Alumina and Zirconia 639(1)
Bioactive Glasses 640(1)
Bioactive Glass-Ceramics 641(1)
Hydroxyapatite 642(2)
Bioceramics in Composites 644(1)
Bioceramic Coatings 645(1)
Radiotherapy Glasses 646(1)
Pyrolytic Carbon Heart Valves 646(1)
Nanobioceramics 647(1)
Dental Ceramics 648(1)
Biomimetics 648(4)
Minerals and Gems 652(23)
Minerals 652(1)
What Is a Gem? 653(1)
In the Rough 653(1)
Cutting and Polishing 654(2)
Light and Optics in Gemology 656(4)
Color in Gems and Minerals 660(1)
Optical Effects 661(2)
Identifying Minerals and Gems 663(1)
Chemical Stability (Durability) 664(1)
Diamonds, Sapphires, Rubies, and Emeralds 664(2)
Opal 666(1)
Other Gems 667(2)
Minerals with Inclusions 669(1)
Treatment of Gems 670(1)
The Mineral and Gem Trade 670(5)
Industry and the Environment 675(16)
The Beginning of the Modern Ceramics 675(1)
Industry
Growth and Globalization 676(1)
Types of Market 677(1)
Case Studies 677(3)
Emerging Areas 680(2)
Mining 682(1)
Recycling 683(2)
In the Nuclear Industry 685(1)
Producing and Storing Hydrogen 685(2)
As Green Materials 687(4)
Index 691(10)
Details for Figures and Tables 701