Themes, Issues, and Debates in Psychology (2ND)

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Themes, Issues, and Debates in Psychology (2ND)

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  • 製本 Paperback:紙装版/ペーパーバック版/ページ数 384 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780340857847
  • DDC分類 150

Table of Contents

Picture credits                                    x
Introduction xi
Acknowledgements xii
1 The person as psychologist 1 (16)
Introduction 1 (1)
The lay person as psychologist: people as 2 (1)
scientists
Common-sense psychology: looking for hidden 2 (8)
causes of behaviour
Man-the-scientist: Kelly's psychology of 10 (2)
personal constructs
Homo psychologicus: human beings as natural 12 (2)
psychologists
Conclusion 14 (1)
Summary 14 (3)
2 Attribution 17 (26)
Attribution and everyday psychology 17 (1)
Causes and perceived causes 17 (1)
Attribution theory and theories of attribution 18 (5)
Attribution and emotion 23 (3)
Attribution and attitude change 26 (2)
The self-serving bias (SSB) and depression 28 (1)
Attributional style, achievement motivation 29 (1)
and gender
Attributional style and marital relationships 30 (3)
The self-serving bias as a cultural phenomenon 33 (1)
Attributional bias, prejudice and 34 (2)
discrimination
Attribution and impression management 36
Attribution and helping behaviour 31 (8)
Summary 39 (4)
3 The idiographic and nomothetic approaches to 43 (18)
the study of behaviour
Psychology: the study of individuals or the 43 (2)
study of people?
Historical background 45 (9)
Reconciling the nomothetic/idiographic 54 (1)
approaches
Idiographic methods, old and new 55 (1)
Conclusions: a different way of looking at 56 (2)
the research process
Summary 58 (3)
4 Traits and situations as causes of behaviour 61 (14)
Common sense views of personality 61 (1)
Consistency of behaviour and psychological 62 (1)
abnormality
Personality and social psychology 62 (2)
Some key issues in the study of personality 64 (1)
The meanings of 'interactionism' 65 (6)
Conclusions 71 (1)
Summary 72 (3)
5 Heredity and environment 75 (20)
Framing the questions 75 (1)
Nativism, empiricism and interactionism 76 (1)
The nature of 'nature' 77 (1)
Heredity: chromosomes, genes and DNA 78 (2)
The nature of nurture: what is the 80 (6)
environment?
Behaviour genetics: going beyond the 86 (4)
nature-nurture debate
Drawing some conclusions and raising some 90 (3)
important issues
Summary 93 (2)
6 Psychology, women and feminism 95 (22)
What is feminist psychology? 95 (1)
Sexism within the psychology profession 96 (3)
Heterosexism in the psychology profession 99 (1)
The feminist critique of science 99 (2)
The masculinist bias 101(7)
What's different about feminist research? 108(3)
So how is gender constructed? 111(2)
So are women and men different-and, if so, 113(1)
how?
Concluding comments: what's better about 113(1)
feminist psychology?
Summary 114(3)
7 Normality and abnormality 117(24)
Abnormality, deviance and difference 117(2)
Criteria for defining psychological 119(4)
abnormality
An interim summing up: what have we learnt so 123(1)
far?
The case of homosexuality: normal or abnormal? 123(6)
The objective nature of mental disorders: do 129(2)
they exist?
The cross-cultural study of mental disorder 131(4)
The culture-bound nature of psychiatry 135(2)
Summary 137(4)
8 Cross-cultural psychology 141(24)
Culture as part of the nature-nurture debate 141(1)
What is cross-cultural psychology? 142(4)
What is this thing called culture? 146(7)
Doing cross-cultural research: conceptual and 153(7)
methodological issues
Some concluding comments 160(2)
Summary 162(3)
9 Attachment and separation through the life 165(20)
cycle
What is attachment? 166(1)
Attachments, affectional bonds and other 167(3)
relationships
Similarities between adult and childhood 170(1)
attachments
Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment 171(4)
process
Adult attachment research since 1987 175(1)
Attachment, exploration and work 176(1)
Religious behaviour: God as a secure base and 177(2)
safe haven
Attachment among older adults 179(1)
Attachment, separation and loss 180(2)
Summary 182(3)
10 Psychology and ethics 185(26)
Ethical questions: do psychologists need to 185(1)
ask them?
Psychologists as investigators and as 186(2)
practitioners
Research with human participants 188(12)
The use of animals in psychological research 200(3)
Psychologists as agents of change 203(5)
Summary 208(3)
11 Psychology as science 211(30)
Science as a recurrent theme 211(1)
A brief sketch of the history of science 212(5)
Some (other) influences on the development of 217(2)
psychology
The development of psychology as a science: 219(6)
the early days
What should the subject matter of psychology 225
be?
The social nature of scientific research 221(11)
The uniqueness of psychology 232(2)
A shift towards studying people as people 234(2)
The changing face of science 236(2)
Summary 238(3)
12 Free will and determinism 241(20)
Why are psychologists interested? 241(5)
What do we mean by free will? 246(5)
The views of William James: soft determinism 251(2)
The views of Sigmund Freud: psychic 253(3)
determinism
The views of BE Skinner: free will as an 256(2)
illusion
The views of Carl Rogers: freedom and the 258(1)
fully functioning person
The views of Erich Fromm: the fear of freedom 259(1)
The views of George Kelly: freedom and 260(1)
personal constructs
Sociobiology: extreme biological determinism 261(2)
Drawing some conclusions: freedom as an 263(1)
evolutionary reality
Summary 264
13 Consciousness and the mind-brain relationship 261(34)
Consciousness and the subject matter of 261(7)
psychology
Knowing where to start: does consciousness 268
exist?
The nature of consciousness 213(67)
Can a machine be conscious? Does having a 280(2)
brain matter?
Consciousness and the importance of having a 282(1)
body
What is consciousness for? Taking an 283(3)
evolutionary approach
The relationship between mind and brain 286(6)
Summary 292(3)
14 Parapsychology 295(18)
Paranormal, unusual and anomalistic 295(1)
experiences
Belief in the paranormal 296(3)
Experimental investigation of paranormal 299(3)
phenomena
Philosophical and methodological issues 302(4)
The placebo effect: a case study in 306(4)
parapsychological research
Summary 310(3)
15 Theoretical approaches to psychology 313(32)
The behaviourist approach 313(6)
The psychodynamic approach 319(8)
The cognitive approach 327(3)
The social constructionist approach 330(6)
The evolutionary psychological approach 336(4)
Conclusions 340(1)
Summary 341(4)
References 345(28)
Index 373