Technical Communciation (7TH)

Technical Communciation (7TH)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 699 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780312403386
  • DDC分類 808.0666

Table of Contents

        How to Use This Book with TechComm Web     Inside front
Preface for Instructors v
PART ONE THE TECHNICAL-COMMUNICATION ENVIRONMENT 1 (70)
1. Introduction to Technical Communication 3 (12)
What Is Technical Communication? 4 (1)
Who Produces Technical Communication? 4 (1)
The Role of Technical Communication in 5 (1)
Business and Industry
Technical Communication and Your Career 5 (1)
Characteristics of Technical Communication 6 (3)
Addresses Particular Readers 6 (1)
Strategies for Intercultural 6 (1)
Communication: Communicating Across
Cultures
Helps Readers Solve Problems 7 (1)
Reflects an Organization's Goals and 7 (1)
Culture
Is Produced Collaboratively 7 (1)
Uses Design to Increase Readability 8 (1)
Consists of Words or Graphics or Both 8 (1)
Is Produced Using High-Tech Tools 8 (2)
Interactive Sample Document: Studying 9 (1)
How Technical Communication Combines
Words and Graphics
A Look at a sample Document 9 (1)
Measures of Excellence in Technical 10 (3)
Communication
Honesty 10 (1)
Clarity 11 (1)
Accuracy 11 (1)
Comprehensiveness 11 (1)
Accessibility 12 (1)
Conciseness 12 (1)
Professional Appearance 12 (1)
Correctness 12 (1)
Exercise 13 (1)
Projects 14 (1)
CASE: Practicing What We Preach 14 (1)
2. Understanding Ethical and Legal 15 (17)
Considerations
A Brief Introduction to Ethics 17 (1)
Your Legal Obligations 18 (5)
Copyright Law 18 (2)
Guidelines: Determining "Fair Use" 19 (1)
Guidelines: Dealing with Copyright 19 (1)
Questions
Trademark Law 20 (1)
Guidelines: Protecting Trademark 21 (1)
Contract Law 21 (1)
Liability Law 22 (4)
Guidelines: Abiding by Liability Laws 22 (1)
Codes of Conduct and Whistleblowing 23 (3)
Interactive Sample Document: Analyzing 25 (1)
a Code of Conduct
Principles for Ethical Communication 26 (2)
Abide by Relevant Laws 26 (1)
Abide by the Appropriate Corporate or 26 (1)
Professional Code of Conduct
Tell the Truth 26 (1)
Don't Mislead Your Readers 27 (1)
Be Clear 27 (1)
Avoid Discriminatory Language 27 (1)
Acknowledge Assistance from Others 27 (6)
Strategies for Intercultural 28 (1)
Communication: Communicating Ethically
Across Cultures
Revision Checklist 28 (1)
Exercise 29 (1)
Projects 29 (1)
CASE: The Name Game 30 (2)
3. Understanding the Writing Process 32 (20)
Planning 33 (6)
Analyzing Your Audience 33 (1)
Analyzing Your Purpose 34 (1)
Generating Ideas about Your Topic 34 (2)
Researching Additional Information 36 (1)
Organizing and Outlining Your Document 36 (2)
Devising a Schedule and a Budget 38 (1)
Drafting 39 (3)
Guidelines: Drafting Effectively 39 (1)
Using Templates 40 (1)
Using Styles 40 (1)
Using Automated Hypertext Linking and 41 (1)
Web-Conversion Tools
Revising 42 (8)
Studying the Document by Yourself 42 (1)
Guidelines: Revising by Yourself 42 (1)
Using Revision Software 43 (1)
Spell Checkers 43 (1)
Grammar Checkers 43 (1)
Thesauri 44 (1)
Seeking Help from Someone Else 44 (2)
Strategies for Intercultural 44 (2)
Communication: Having Your Draft
Reviewed by a Person from the Target
Culture
Testing Readers as They Use the Document 46 (7)
The Goals of Usability Testing 46 (1)
The Basic Concepts of Usability Testing 46 (1)
Preparing for a Usability Test 47 (1)
Conducting a Usability Test 47 (1)
Interpreting and Reporting the Data 48 (1)
from a Usability Test
Interactive Sample Document: Learning 49 (1)
from Usability Testing
Revision Checklist 50 (1)
Exercises 50 (1)
Project 51 (1)
CASE: The Writing Process Online 51 (1)
4. Writing Collaboratively 52 (19)
Advantages and Disadvantages of 53 (2)
Collaboration
Advantages of Collaboration 53 (2)
Disadvantages of Collaboration 55 (1)
Conducting Meetings 55 (7)
Setting Your Group's Agenda 56 (4)
Guidelines: Setting Your Agenda 56 (4)
Conducting Efficient Face-to-Face Meetings 60 (1)
Guidelines: Conducting Efficient 60 (1)
Meetings
Communicating Diplomatically 60 (1)
Guidelines: Communicating, 60 (1)
Diplomatically
Critiquing a Group Member's Draft 61 (1)
Guidelines: Critiquing a Draft 62 (1)
Using Groupware and Other Communication 62 (4)
Media
Using the Comment, Revision, and 63 (1)
Highlighting Features on a Word Processor
Using E-mail to Send Files 64 (1)
Using Groupware 64 (11)
Interactive sample Document: Critiquing 66 (1)
a Draft Clearly and Diplomatically
Gender and Collaboration 66 (2)
Strategies for Intercultural 67 (1)
Communication: Collaborating Across
Cultures
Collaborator's Checklist 68 (1)
Exercises 68 (1)
Project 69 (1)
CASE: The Reluctant Collaborator 69 (2)
PART TWO PLANNING THE DOCUMENT 71 (120)
5. Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose 73 (31)
Analyzing an Audience 74 (1)
Identifying Primary and Secondary Audiences 75 (1)
Basic Categories of Readers 75 (6)
The Expert 76 (1)
The Technician 76 (3)
The Manager 79 (1)
The General Reader 80 (1)
Guidelines: Writing for the Basic 81 (1)
Categories of Readers
Individual Characteristics of Readers 81 (5)
Who Is Your Reader? 81 (2)
What Are Your Reader's Attitudes and 83 (1)
Expectations?
Why and How Will Your Reader Use Your 84 (3)
Document?
Guidelines: Identifying Individual 85 (1)
Characteristics of Readers
Writing for Multiple Audiences 86 (1)
The Audience Profile sheet 87 (1)
Communicating Across Cultures 87 (9)
Understanding the Cultural Variables "On 87 (3)
the surface"
Understanding the Cultural Variables 90 (3)
"Beneath the surface"
Considering Cultural Variables as You 93 (1)
Write
Crafting Graphics and Design for 94 (11)
Multicultural Readers
Strategies for Intercultural 94 (2)
Communication: Writing for Readers from
Other Cultures
Determining Your Purpose 96 (1)
Gaining Management's Approval 97 (3)
Interactive Sample Document: Examining 98 (2)
Cultural Variables in a Business Letter
Revision Checklist 100(1)
Exercises 101(1)
Projects 102(1)
CASE: Planning an Apology to a Customer 102(2)
from the People's Republic of China
6. Communicating Persuasively 104(19)
Considering the Context of Your Argument 105(4)
Understanding Your Audience's Broader 106(1)
Goals
Security 106(1)
Recognition 106(1)
Personal and Professional Growth 106(1)
Working Within Constraints 107(2)
Ethical Constraints 107(1)
Legal Constraints 107(1)
Political Constraints 108(1)
Informational Constraints 108(1)
Personnel Constraints 108(1)
Financial Constraints 108(1)
Time Constraints 108(1)
Format and Tone Constraints 108(1)
Crafting a Persuasive Argument 109(4)
Identifying the Elements of Your Argument 109(1)
Using the Right Kinds of Evidence 110(1)
Considering Opposing Viewpoints 111(2)
Interactive Sample Document: 112(1)
Confronting Opposing Views
Deciding Where to Present the Claim 113(1)
Avoiding Logical Fallacies 113(2)
Presenting Yourself Effectively 115(2)
Guidelines: Creating a Professional 116(1)
Persona
Using Graphics and Design as Persuasive 117(1)
Elements
Strategies for Intercultural 116(2)
Communication: Persuading Multicultural
Audiences
Linking Persuasion and Ethics 118(1)
A Look at Several Persuasive Arguments 118(2)
Revision Checklist 120(1)
Exercises 120(1)
Project 121(1)
CASE: Being Persuasive about Privacy 121(2)
7. Researching Your Subject 123(36)
Narrowing a Topic 124(1)
Guidelines: Narrowing a Topic 124(1)
Planning a Research Strategy 125(3)
Guidelines: Understanding How to Plan a 126(1)
Research Strategy
Strategies for Intercultural 127(1)
Communication: Planning a Research
Strategy for Multicultural Audiences
Conducting Secondary Research 128(17)
Understanding the Research Media 128(5)
Print 128(1)
Online Databases 128(1)
Digital Disks 129(1)
Web Sites 129(1)
Online Discussion Groups 129(4)
Using Basic Research Tools 133(3)
Online Catalogs 133(1)
Reference Works 134(1)
Periodical Indexes 135(1)
Newspaper Indexes 135(1)
Abstract Services 136(1)
Researching Government Information 136(1)
Skimming Your Sources and Taking Notes 137(1)
Guidelines: Skimming Books and Articles 138(1)
Guidelines: Recording Bibliographic 139(1)
Information
Paraphrasing 139(1)
Guidelines: Paraphrasing Accurately 141(1)
Quoting 141(1)
Summarizing 142(1)
Guidelines: Summarizing 142(3)
Evaluating the Information 145(1)
Conducting Primary Research 145(11)
Guidelines: Evaluating Print and Online 146(1)
Sources
Inspections 147(1)
Experiments 147(2)
Interactive Sample Document: Evaluating 148(1)
information from Internet Sources
Field Research 149(1)
Interviews 150(2)
Guidelines: Conducting an interview 150(2)
Letters of Inquiry 152(1)
Questionnaires 152(8)
Asking Effective Questions 152(4)
Testing the Questionnaire 156(1)
Administering the Questionnaire 156(1)
Revision Checklist 156(1)
Exercises 156(1)
Projects 157(1)
CASE: Projecting a Credible Image for Your 158(1)
Organization
6. Organizing Your Information 159(32)
Basic Principles of Organizing Technical 160(2)
Information
Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose 160(1)
Strategies for Intercultural 161(1)
Communication: Organizing Documents for
Readers from Other Cultures
Using Conventional Patterns of Arrangement 161(1)
Displaying Your Arrangement Prominently 162(1)
Basic Patterns of Organizing Information 162(17)
Chronological 162(1)
Guidelines: Organizing information 163(1)
Chronologically
Spatial 163(2)
Guidelines: Organizing Information 164(1)
Spatially
General to Specific 165(2)
Guidelines: Organizing Information from 166(1)
General to Specific
More Important to Less Important 167(1)
Guidelines: Organizing Information from 167(1)
More Important to Less Important
Comparison and Contrast 167(5)
Guidelines: Organizing Information by 170(2)
Comparison and Contrast
Classification and Partition 172(3)
Guidelines: Organizing Information by 172(3)
Classification or Partition
Problem-Methods-Solution 175(3)
Guidelines: Organizing Information by 176(2)
Problem-Methods Solution
Cause and Effect 178(1)
Guidelines: Organizing Information by 178(1)
Cause and Effect
Introductions and Conclusions 179(7)
Introductions 179(3)
Conclusions 182(14)
Interactive Sample Document: 185(1)
Identifying the Elements of a Conclusion
Revision Checklist 186(1)
Exercises 187(1)
Project 188(1)
CASE: Introducing a Document 188(3)
PART THREE DEVELOPING THE TEXTUAL ELEMENTS 191(94)
9. Drafting and Revising Definitions and 193(25)
Descriptions
Understanding the Role of Definitions 194(1)
Analyzing the Writing Situation for 195(1)
Definitions
Strategies for Intercultural 195(1)
Communication: Defining Terms for
Readers from Another Culture
Determining the Kind of Definition to Write 196(6)
Writing Parenthetical Definitions 196(1)
Writing Sentence Definitions 197(1)
Guidelines: Writing Effective Sentence 197(1)
Definitions
Writing Extended Definitions 198(7)
Graphics 198(1)
Examples 199(1)
Partition 199(1)
Principle of Operation 200(1)
Comparison and Contrast 200(1)
Analogy 200(1)
Negation 201(1)
Etymology 201(1)
History of the Term 202(1)
A Sample Extended Definition 202(1)
Deciding Where to Place the Definition 202(2)
Understanding the Role of Descriptions 204(1)
Analyzing the Writing Situation for 205(1)
Descriptions
Writing the Description 205(6)
Clearly Indicate the Nature and Scope of 206(1)
the Description
Introduce the Description Clearly 206(2)
Interactive Sample Document: 208(1)
Introducing a Description
Provide Appropriate Detail 208(2)
Guidelines: Providing Appropriate 209(1)
Detail in Descriptions
Conclude the Description 210(1)
Analyzing Some Descriptions 211(4)
Revision Checklist 215(1)
Exercises 216(1)
Projects 216(1)
CASE: Describing a New Fighter Jet 217(1)
10. Drafting and Revising Coherent Documents 218(19)
Writing Coherent Titles 219(1)
Writing Coherent Headings 220(2)
Guidelines: Writing Effective Headings 221(1)
Writing Coherent Lists 222(2)
Strategies for Intercultural 222(2)
Communication: Using Headings and Lists
Appropriately for Multicultural
Audiences
Writing Coherent Paragraphs 224(7)
Structure Paragraphs Clearly 224(3)
The Topic Sentence 224(1)
The Support 225(1)
Paragraph Length 226(1)
Guidelines: Dividing Long Paragraphs 226(1)
Use Coherence Devices Within and Between 227(11)
Paragraphs
Add Transitional Words and Phrases 228(1)
Repeat Key Words 229(1)
Use Demonstrative Pronouns Followed by 229(1)
Nouns
Interactive Sample Document: 230(1)
Identifying the Elements of a Coherent
Paragraph
Revising the Whole Document for Coherence 231(1)
Guidelines: Revising the Whole Document 231(1)
Revision Checklist 232(1)
Exercises 232(2)
Project 234(1)
CASE: Writing Guidelines about Coherence 234(3)
11. Drafting and Revising Effective Sentences 237(30)
Structuring Effective sentences 238(10)
Use Lists 238(4)
Guidelines: Creating Effective Lists 239(3)
Put New and Important Information at the 242(1)
End of the Sentence
Choose an Appropriate Sentence Length 242(2)
Avoid Overly Long Sentences 243(1)
Avoid Overly Short Sentences 243(1)
Focus on the "Real" Subject 244(1)
Focus on the "Real" Verb 245(1)
Express Parallel Elements in Parallel 245(1)
Structures
Use Modifiers Effectively 246(2)
Distinguish Between Restrictive and 246(1)
Nonrestrictive Modifiers
Avoid Misplaced Modifiers 247(1)
Avoid Dangling Modifiers 248(1)
Choosing the Right Words and Phrases 248(11)
Select an Appropriate Level of Formality 248(1)
Be Clear and Specific 249(5)
Use Active and Passive Voice 250(1)
Appropriately
Be Specific 251(1)
Avoid Unnecessary Jargon 252(1)
Use Positive Constructions 252(1)
Avoid Long Noun strings 253(1)
Avoid Clich駸 253(1)
Avoid Euphemisms 253(1)
Be Concise 254(3)
Avoid Obvious Statements 254(1)
Avoid Filler 254(1)
Avoid Unnecessary Prepositional Phrases 255(1)
Avoid Wordy Phrases 255(1)
Avoid Pompous Words 255(1)
Interactive Sample Document: Revising 257(1)
for Conciseness
Use Inoffensive Language 257(12)
Use Nonsexist Language 257(1)
Guidelines: Avoiding Sexist Language 258(1)
Use Inoffensive Language When Referring 259(1)
to People with Disabilities
Guidelines: Using the People-First 259(1)
Approach
Understanding Simplified English for 259(1)
Nonnative Speakers
Preparing Text for Translation 260(1)
Strategies for Intercultural 260(1)
Communication: Making Text Easy to
Translate
Revision Checklist 261(1)
Exercises 262(3)
Project 265(1)
CASE: Revising a Draft for Sentence 265(2)
Effectiveness
12. Drafting and Revising Front and Back 267(18)
Matter
Writing the Front Matter 269(10)
Letter of Transmittal 269(1)
Cover 269(1)
Title Page 269(1)
Abstract 269(4)
Table of Contents 273(1)
List of Illustrations 274(1)
Executive Summary 274(5)
Guidelines: Writing an Executive Summary 277(2)
Interactive Sample Document: Analyzing 279(1)
an Executive Summary
Writing the Back Matter 279(3)
Glossary and List of symbols 279(1)
References 280(1)
Appendices 281(8)
Strategies for Intercultural 281(1)
Communication: Drafting Front and Back
Matter for Different Cultures
Revision Checklist 282(1)
Exercises 282(1)
Project 283(1)
CASE: Planning for Better Front and Back 283(2)
Matter
PART FOUR DEVEL0PING THE VISUAL ELEMENTS 285(76)
13. Designing the Document 287(31)
Goals of Document Design and Page Design 288(1)
Understanding Design Principles 289(4)
Proximity 289(1)
Alignment 290(1)
Repetition 290(2)
Contrast 292(1)
Planning the Design of the Document and the 293(1)
Page
Analyzing Your Audience's Needs and 293(1)
Expectations
Strategies for Intercultural 293(1)
Communication: Designing Documents to
Suit Cultural Preferences
Determining Your Resources 294(1)
Designing the Document 294(4)
Size 294(1)
Paper 295(1)
Bindings 295(1)
Accessing Tools 296(2)
Designing the Page 298(12)
Guidelines: Understanding Learning 298(2)
Theory and Page Design
Page Layout 300(3)
Page Grids 300(1)
White space 300(3)
Columns 303(1)
Typography 303(5)
Typefaces 303(1)
Type Families 304(1)
Case 305(1)
Type Sizes 306(1)
Line Length 306(1)
Line spacing 306(2)
Justification 308(1)
Designing Titles and Headings 308(1)
Designing Titles 309(1)
Designing Headings 309(1)
Other Design Features 309(1)
Analyzing Some Page Designs 310(5)
Interactive Sample Document: Analyzing 314(1)
a Page Design
Revision Checklist 315(1)
Exercises 315(1)
Project 316(1)
CASE: The Underdesigned Data sheet 316(2)
14. Creating Graphics 318(43)
The Functions of Graphics 319(2)
Characteristics of an Effective Graphic 321(2)
Guidelines: Integrating Graphics and 322(1)
Text
Understanding the Process of Creating 323(4)
Graphics
Planning the Graphics 323(2)
Creating the Graphics 325(1)
Revising the Graphics 326(1)
Citing the Graphics 326(1)
Using Color Effectively 327(3)
Choosing the Appropriate Kind of Graphic 330(25)
Illustrating Numerical Information 330(14)
Tables 333(1)
Guidelines: Creating Effective Tables 333(3)
Bar Graphs 336(1)
Guidelines: Creating Effective Bar 337(3)
Graphs
Pictographs 340(1)
Interactive Sample Document: Balancing 341(1)
Clarity and Drama in Graphics
Line Graphs 341(1)
Guidelines: Creating Effective Line 342(1)
Graphs
Pie Charts 342(1)
Guidelines: Creating Effective Pie 343(1)
Charts
Illustrating Logical Relationships 344(2)
Diagrams 344(1)
Organization Charts 344(2)
Illustrating Process Descriptions and 346(3)
Instructions
Checklists 346(1)
Flowcharts 347(1)
Logic Boxes and Logic Trees 347(2)
Illustrating Visual and Spatial 349(4)
Characteristics
Photographs 350(1)
Guidelines: Presenting Photographs 350(1)
Effectively
Screen Shots 351(1)
Line Drawings 351(2)
Maps 353(1)
Showing Motion in Your Graphics 353(2)
Strategies for Intercultural 354(1)
Communication: Creating Effective
Graphics for Multicultural Readers
Understanding Graphics Software 355(2)
Spreadsheet Business Graphics 356(1)
Paint Programs and Draw Programs 356(1)
Revision Checklist 357(1)
Exercises 357(3)
Projects 360(1)
CASE: Evaluating Graphics on a Web Site 360(1)
PART FIVE APPLICATIONS 361(230)
15. Writing Letters, Memos, and E=mails 363(29)
Writing Letters 364(14)
Projecting the "You Attitude" 365(1)
Avoiding Letter Clich駸 365(2)
Understanding the Elements of the Letter 367(1)
Learning the Format of the Letter 367(1)
Understanding Common Types of Letters 367(11)
Inquiry Letter 367(1)
Guidelines: Writing an Inquiry Letter 367(5)
Response to an inquiry Letter 372(1)
Claim Letter 372(1)
Guidelines: Writing a Claim Letter 372(2)
Adjustment Letter 374(1)
Guidelines: Writing a "Bad-News" 374(4)
Adjustment Letter
Writing Memos 378(3)
Analyze Your Audience 378(1)
Include the Identifying Information 378(1)
Clearly State Your Purpose 378(1)
Use Headings to Help Your Readers 379(1)
If Appropriate, Summarize Your Message 380(1)
Provide Adequate Background for the 380(1)
Discussion
Organize the Discussion 380(1)
Highlight Action Items 381(1)
Writing E-mails 381(6)
Guidelines: Following Netiquette 383(2)
Interactive Sample Document: 385(1)
Participating in an Online Discussion
Group
Strategies for Intercultural 386(1)
Communication: Writing Culture-Specific
Letters, Memos, and E-mails
Reviewing the Process 387(1)
Revision Checklist 388(1)
Exercises 389(1)
Project 390(1)
CASE: Dangerous Wrenches 391(1)
16. Preparing Job-Application Materials 392(39)
Planning the Job search 393(2)
Strategies for Intercultural 394(1)
Communication: Applying for
International Positions
Understanding Seven Ways to Look for a 395(1)
Position
Writing R駸um駸 396(13)
Appearance of the R駸um  397(1)
Content of the R駸um  398(1)
Elements of the Chronological R駸um  399(5)
Identifying Information 399(1)
Job Objectives 399(1)
Education 399(1)
Guidelines: Elaborating on Your 400(1)
Education
Employment History 401(1)
Interests and Activities 402(1)
References 403(1)
Other Elements 404(1)
Elements of the Analytical R駸um  404(1)
Using Tables in Formatting a R駸um  405(4)
Writing Electronic R駸um駸 409(5)
Interactive Sample Document: Modifying 410(1)
the Basic R駸um 
Content of an Electronic R駸um  411(1)

Format of an Electronic R駸um  411(3)

Guidelines: Preparing an ASCII R駸um  411(1)

Guidelines: Preparing a Scannable R駸um  412(2)

Writing Job-Application Letters 414(5)

The Concept of Selectivity 414(1)

Elements of the Job-Application Letter 415(4)

The Introductory Paragraph 415(1)

The Education Paragraph 416(1)

The Employment Paragraph 417(1)

The Concluding Paragraph 418(1)

Preparing for Job Interviews 419(4)

Guidelines: Preparing for a Job Interview 419(4)

Writing Follow-up Letters 423(2)

Creating Electronic Portfolios 425(2)

Guidelines: Creating an Electronic 426(1)

Portfolio

Reviewing the Process 427(1)

Revision Checklist 428(1)

Exercises 429(1)

Project 430(1)

CASE: Updating Career-Center Materials 430(1)

17. Writing Proposals 431(31)

The Logistics of Proposals 432(3)

External and Internal Proposals 433(1)

External Proposals 433(1)

Internal Proposals 433(1)

Solicited and Unsolicited Proposals 433(2)

Solicited Proposals 433(1)

Unsolicited Proposals 434(1)

The "Deliverables" of Proposals 435(1)

Research Proposals 435(1)

Goods-and-Services Proposals 436(1)

Persuasion and Proposals 436(4)

Understanding the Readers' Needs 437(2)

Readers' Needs in an External Proposal 437(1)

Readers' Needs in an Internal Proposal 437(1)

Strategies for Intercultural 438(1)

Communication: Writing International

Proposals

Describing What You Plan to Do 439(1)

Demonstrating Your Professionalism 439(2)

Guidelines: Demonstrating Your 439(1)

Professionalism in a Proposal

Writing a Proposal 440(1)

The Structure of the Proposal 441(11)

Summary 442(1)

Introduction 443(2)

Guidelines: Introducing a Proposal 443(2)

Proposed Program 445(1)

Qualifications and Experience 446(1)

Budget 446(3)

Appendices 449(17)

Task Schedule 450(1)

TABLES 450(1)

BAR CHARTS 451(1)

NETWORK DIAGRAMS 451(1)

Description of Evaluation Techniques 451(1)

Sample Internal Proposal 452(7)

Interactive Sample Document: Analyzing 457(2)

an External Proposal

Reviewing the Process 459(1)

Revision Checklist 459(1)

Exercises 460(1)

Project 460(1)

CASE: Ethics and Proposals 461(1)

18. Writing Informal Reports 462(20)

Planning, Drafting, and Revising Informal 463(2)

Reports

Strategies for Intercultural 464(1)

Communication: Considering Informal

Reports for Multicultural Audiences

Formats for Informal Reports 465(1)

Writing Directives 465(1)

Writing Field and Lab Reports 466(1)

Guidelines: Responding to Readers' 466(1)

Questions in a Field or Lab Report

Writing Progress and Status Reports 466(10)

Guidelines: Reporting Your Progress 468(1)

Honestly

Interactive Sample Document: Reporting 469(1)

Inconclusive Information

Organizing Progress and Status Reports 469(1)

Concluding Progress and Status Reports 470(1)

Guidelines: Projecting an Appropriate 470(1)

Tone in a Progress or status Report

Sample Progress Report 470(6)

Writing Incident Reports 476(1)

Writing Meeting Minutes 476(3)

Reviewing the Process 479(1)

Revision Checklist 479(1)

Exercises 480(1)

Projects 480(1)

CASE: Amending a Proposal 481(1)

19. Writing Formal Reports 482(39)

Understanding the Types of Formal Reports 483(3)

Informational Reports 484(1)

Analytical Reports 484(1)

Recommendation Reports 485(1)

A Problem-Solving Model for Preparing 486(4)

Formal Reports

Analyze Your Audience 486(2)

Strategies for Intercultural 487(1)

Communication: Writing Formal Reports

for Readers from Another Culture

Analyze Your Purpose 488(1)

Identify Questions That Need to Be 488(1)

Answered

Carry Out Appropriate Research 489(1)

Draw Conclusions from the Research 489(1)

Formulate Recommendations Based on 490(1)

Conclusions

Understanding Feasibility Reports 490(4)

Identify the Problem or Opportunity 491(1)

Establish Criteria for Responding to the 491(1)

Problem or Opportunity

Determine the Options 492(1)

Study Each Option According to the 492(1)

Criteria

Draw Conclusions about Each Option 493(1)

Formulate Recommendations Based on the 494(1)

Conclusions

Guidelines: Preparing Feasibility 494(1)

Reports

Organizing the Body of the Formal Report 494(9)

Introduction 495(1)

Methods 496(1)

Results 496(2)

Conclusions 498(3)

Recommendations 501(22)

Guidelines: Writing Recommendations 502(1)

Interactive Sample Document: 503(1)

Introducing a Report

Sample Formal Report 503(15)

Reviewing the Process 518(1)

Revision Checklist 519(1)

Exercises 519(1)

Projects 520(1)

CASE: Turning a Letter into a Report 520(1)

20. Writing Instructions and Manuals 521(25)

Understanding the Role of Instructions and 522(1)

Manuals

Analyzing Your Audience 523(1)

Planning for Safety 523(3)

Writing Clear Safety Information 523(1)

Designing Safety Information 524(1)

Placing Safety Information in the 525(1)

Appropriate Location

Drafting Effective Instructions 526(4)

Drafting General Introductions 527(1)

Guidelines: Drafting Introductions for 527(1)

Instructions

Drafting Step-by-Step Instructions 528(1)

Guidelines: Drafting Steps in 528(1)

Instructions

Drafting Conclusions 529(1)

A Look at Sample Instructions 530(2)

Drafting Effective Manuals 532(11)

Interactive Sample Document: Presenting 533(1)

Clear Instructions

Drafting Front Matter 534(6)

Drafting the Body 540(1)

Guidelines: Drafting the Body of a 540(1)

Manual

Drafting Back Matter 540(1)

Drafting Revisions of Manuals 541(6)

Strategies for Intercultural 542(1)

Communication: Writing Instructions and

Manuals for Multicultural Audiences

Reviewing the Process 543(1)

Revision Checklist 543(1)

Exercises 544(1)

Projects 545(1)

CASE: Writing a set of Instructions 545(1)

21. Creating Web Sites 546(23)

Understanding the Process of Creating Web 547(8)

Sites

Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose 547(1)

Designing the Site and Its Pages 548(2)

Creating and Coding the Content 550(1)

Revising and Testing the Site 551(1)

Launching the site 552(2)

Registering the Site with Search Engines 554(1)

Maintaining the Site 554(1)

Guidelines: Keeping Your Site Current 554(1)

Designing Effective Sites and Pages 555(6)

Aim for Simplicity 555(1)

Guidelines: Designing a Simple Site 555(1)

Make the Text Easy to Read and Understand 556(1)

Guidelines: Designing Easy-to-Read Text 556(1)

Create Informative Headers and Footers 556(1)

Help Readers Navigate the Site 557(2)

Guidelines: Making Your Site Easy to 557(2)

Navigate

Create Clear, Informative Links 559(1)

Guidelines: Writing Clear, Informative 559(1)

Links

Avoid Web Clich駸 560(1)

Include Extra Features Your Readers Might 560(1)

Need

Designing Sites for Readers with 561(1)

Disabilities

Designing Sites for Multicultural Audiences 562(1)

Strategies for Intercultural 562(1)

Communication: Communicating Across

Cultures Online

Ethics, Copyright Law, and the Web 562(1)

Guidelines: Creating an Ethical Site 563(1)

A Look at Sample Web Pages 563(2)

Interactive Sample Document: Making an 565(1)

Impression

Reviewing the Process 565(1)

Revision Checklist 566(1)

Exercises 567(1)

Projects 567(1)

CASE: Creating a Web Site 568(1)

22. Making Oral Presentations 569(22)

Understanding the Role of Oral Presentations 570(1)

Preparing an Oral Presentation 571(12)

Assessing the Speaking Situation 571(2)

Analyzing Your Audience and Purpose 572(1)

Budgeting Your Time 572(1)

Preparing an Outline or Note Cards 573(1)

Preparing Presentation Graphics 573(8)

Characteristics of an Effective Graphic 575(1)

Graphics and the Speaking Situation 575(1)

Using Graphics to Signal the 576(1)

Organization of the Presentation

Different Media Used for Graphics 576(1)

Interactive Sample Document: Designing 580(1)

a Presentation Slide

Choosing Effective Language 581(1)

Using Language to Signal Advance 581(1)

Organizers, Summaries, and Transitions

Using Memorable Language 582(1)

Guidelines: Using Memorable Language in 582(1)

Oral Presentations

Rehearsing the Presentation 582(1)

Rehearsing an Extemporaneous 583(1)

Presentation

Rehearsing a Scripted Presentation 583(1)

Giving the Oral Presentation 583(4)

Calming Your Nerves 583(2)

Guidelines: Releasing Nervous Energy 584(1)

Using Your Voice Effectively 585(1)

Using Your Body Effectively 585(2)

Guidelines: Facing an Audience 585(1)

Strategies for Intercultural 586(1)

Communication: Making Oral

Presentations to Multicultural Audiences

Answering Questions after the Presentation 587(1)

Oral-Presentation Evaluation Form 587(2)

Reviewing the Process 589(1)

Speaker's Preparation Checklist 589(1)

Exercises 590(1)

Projects 590(1)

CASE: Identifying Resources for Students in 590(1)

Your Major

APPENDIX REFERENCE HANDBOOK 591(72)

A. Documenting Sources 592(29)

B. Proofreading Symbols and Their Meanings 621(1)

C. Editing Your Documents 622(37)

D. Commonly Misused Words 659(4)

References 663(13)

Selected Bibliography 676(7)

Index 683

Index of Guidelines and Checklists Inside back