Microorganisms in Foods 7 : Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management 〈7〉

Microorganisms in Foods 7 : Microbiological Testing in Food Safety Management 〈7〉

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 388 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780306472626
  • DDC分類 664

Full Description


The latest book in this excellent series describes the role of microbiological testing in modern food safety management systems. It explores how risk assessment and risk management can be used to establish goals for use in controlling food borne illness, and provides guidelines for establishing effective management systems to control specific hazards in foods.This groundbreaking book will interest food microbiologists, researchers, and others in the food industry, regulatory agencies and academia worldwide.

Table of Contents

Introduction                                       xi
Editorial Committee xiii
ICMSF Members During Preparation of Book 7 xiii
Consultants xiii
Contributors xiii
Microbiological Hazards and Their Control 1 (22)
Introduction 1 (1)
History 2 (2)
The Concept of a Food Safety Management 4 (2)
System
Historical Development 6 (3)
Status of Foodborne Illness: Etiologic 9 (4)
Agents or Contaminants
Practices Contributing to Foodborne Illness 13 (1)
Importance of Effective Control Measures 13 (1)
Effectiveness of GHP and HACCP 14 (1)
Would an FSO Improve Food Safety and Reduce 14 (1)
Foodborne Illness?
Use of FSOs in Food Safety Management 15 (1)
Performance, Process, Product, and Default 16 (1)
Criteria
Establishment of Control Measures 17 (1)
Assessment of Control of a Process 17 (1)
Acceptance Criteria 17 (1)
Microbiological Criteria 17 (1)
Microbiological Tests 18 (1)
Summary 18 (1)
References 19 (4)
Evaluating Risks and Establishing Food Safety 23 (22)
Objectives
Introduction 23 (3)
Tolerable Level of Consumer Protection 26 (2)
Importance of Epidemiologic Data 28 (3)
Evaluation of Risk 31 (2)
Food Safety Objectives (FSOs) 33 (2)
Establishment of an FSO Based on a Risk 35 (1)
Evaluation by an Expert Panel
Evaluation of Risk by Quantitative Risk 36 (4)
Assessment
Establishment of an FSO Based on 40 (1)
Quantitative Risk Assessment
Stringency of FSOs in Relation to Risk and 41 (1)
Other Factors
Summary 42 (1)
References 42 (3)
Meeting the FSO Through Control Measures 45 (34)
Introduction 45 (1)
Control Measures 45 (3)
Confirm That the FSO Is Technically 48 (1)
Achievable
Importance of Control Measures 49 (5)
Performance Criteria 54 (5)
Process and Product Criteria 59 (1)
The Use of Microbiological Sampling and 59 (2)
Performance Criteria
Default Criteria 61 (1)
Process Validation 61 (4)
Monitoring and Verifying Control Measures 65 (1)
Examples of Control Options 66 (2)
Assessing Equivalency of Food Safety 68 (1)
Management Systems
References 68 (11)
Control Measures Commonly Applied to 71 (8)
Foodborne Diseases
Selection and Use of Acceptance Criteria 79 (20)
Introduction 79 (1)
Equivalence 80 (1)
Establishment of Acceptance Criteria 81 (3)
Application of Acceptance Criteria 84 (1)
Determining Acceptance by Approval of 85 (2)
Supplier
Examples To Demonstrate the Process of Lot 87 (3)
Acceptance
Auditing Food Operations for Supplier 90 (7)
Acceptance
References 97 (2)
Establishment of Microbiological Criteria for 99 (14)
Lot Acceptance
Introduction 99 (2)
Purposes and Application of Microbiological 101 (1)
Criteria for Foods
Definition of Microbiological Criterion 101 (1)
Types of Microbiological Criteria 102 (1)
Application of Microbiological Criteria 103 (1)
Principles for the Establishment of 104 (2)
Microbiological Criteria
Components of Microbiological Criteria for 106 (5)
Foods
Examples of Microbiological Criteria 111 (1)
References 112 (1)
Concepts of Probability and Principles of 113 (10)
Sampling
Introduction 113 (1)
Probability 113 (1)
Population and Sample of the Population 114 (1)
Choosing the Sample Units 115 (1)
The Sampling Plan 115 (1)
The Operating Characteristic Function 115 (2)
Consumer Risk and Producer Risk 117 (1)
Stringency and Discrimination 117 (1)
Acceptance and Rejection 118 (1)
What Is a Lot? 118 (1)
What Is a Representative Sample? 119 (1)
Confidence in Interpretation of Results 120 (1)
Practical Considerations 121 (1)
References 121 (2)
Sampling Plans 123 (22)
Introduction 123 (1)
Attributes Plans 123 (8)
Variables Plans 131 (3)
Comparison of Sampling Plans 134 (8)
References 142 (3)
Selection of Cases and Attributes Plans 145 (28)
Introduction 145 (1)
Microbial Criteria: Utility, Indicator, and 146 (1)
Pathogens
Factors Affecting the Risk Associated with 147 (4)
Pathogens
Categorizing Microbial Hazards According to 151 (1)
Risk
Definition of Cases 152 (5)
Deciding between Two-Class and Three-Class 157 (1)
Attributes Sampling Plans
Determining Values for m and M 158 (1)
Specific Knowledge about the Lot 159 (1)
What Is a Satisfactory Probability of 160 (1)
Acceptance?
Selecting n and c 161 (1)
Sampling Plan Performance of the Cases 162 (3)
References 165 (8)
Ranking of Foodborne Pathogens or Toxins 166 (7)
into Hazard Groups
Tightened, Reduced, and Investigational 173 (10)
Sampling
Introduction 173 (3)
Application of Tightened Sampling and 176 (1)
Investigational Sampling
Tightened Sampling Plans 177 (3)
Example of the Influence of Sampling Plan 180 (1)
Stringency in Detecting Defective Lots
Selecting the Sampling Plan According to 181 (1)
Purpose
Reduced Sampling 182 (1)
References 182 (1)
Experience in the Use of Two-Class Attributes 183 (16)
Plans for Lot Acceptance
Introduction 183 (1)
The Concept of Zero Tolerance 184 (1)
The Need for Compromise 185 (1)
Application of Two-Class Sampling Plans for 186 (2)
Pathogens Such as Salmonella
Problems in the Implementation of Stringent 188 (1)
Sampling Plans
Relation to Commercial Practice 189 (2)
Discrepancies between Original and Retest 191 (5)
Results
Summary 196 (1)
References 197 (2)
Sampling to Assess Control of the Environment 199 (26)
Introduction 199 (1)
Principles of GHP 200 (1)
Post-Process Contamination 200 (2)
Establishment and Growth of Pathogens in 202 (5)
the Food Processing Environment
Measures To Control Pathogens in the Food 207 (3)
Processing Environment
Sampling the Processing Environment 210 (10)
References 220 (5)
Sampling, Sample Handling, and Sample Analysis 225 (12)
Introduction 225 (1)
Collection of Sample Units 226 (3)
Intermediate Storage and Transportation 229 (2)
Reception of Samples 231 (1)
Sample Analysis 231 (1)
Recovery of Injured Cells 232 (1)
Errors Associated with Methods and 233 (2)
Performance of Laboratories
References 235 (2)
Process Control 237 (26)
Introduction 237 (3)
Knowledge of the Degree of Variability and 240 (3)
the Factors That Influence Variability
Process Capability Study 243 (3)
Control during Production: Monitoring and 246 (1)
Verifying a Single Lot of Food
Control during Production: Organizing Data 247 (12)
from Across Multiple Lots of Food To
Maintain or Improve Control
Use of Process Control Testing as a 259 (1)
Regulatory Tool
Investigating and Learning from Previously 260 (1)
Unrecognized Factors or Unforeseen Events
References 261 (2)
Aflatoxins in Peanuts 263 (10)
Introduction 263 (1)
Risk Assessment 263 (2)
Risk Management 265 (4)
Acceptance Criteria for Final Product 269 (1)
References 270 (3)
Salmonella in Dried Milk 273 (12)
Introduction 273 (1)
Risk Evaluation 273 (2)
Risk Management 275 (4)
Product and Process Criteria 279 (1)
GHP and HACCP 280 (1)
Acceptance Criteria for Final Product 281 (1)
References 282 (3)
Listeria Monocytogenes in Cooked Sausage 285 (28)
(Frankfurters)
Introduction 285 (2)
Risk Evaluation 287 (6)
Risk Management 293 (11)
Process and Product Criteria 304 (4)
GHP and HACCP 308 (1)
Acceptance Criteria for Final Product 308 (1)
References 309 (4)
E. Coli O157:H7 in Frozen Raw Ground Beef 313 (20)
Patties
Introduction 313 (1)
Risk Evaluation 314 (8)
Risk Management 322 (1)
Control Measures 322 (3)
Acceptance Criteria 325 (2)
Statistical Implications of the Proposed 327 (3)
Sampling Plan
References 330 (3)
Appendix A---Glossary 333 (4)
Appendix B---Objectives and Accomplishments of 337 (4)
the International Commission on Microbiological
Specifications for Foods
Appendix C---ICMSF Participants 341 (6)
Appendix D---Publications of the ICMSF 347 (4)
Appendix E---Table of Sources 351 (6)
Index 357