科学の社会的経験主義<br>Social Empiricism

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科学の社会的経験主義
Social Empiricism

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 175 p.
  • 言語 ENG,ENG
  • 商品コード 9780262194617
  • DDC分類 501

基本説明

New in paperback. Hardcover was published in 2001. Building on creative new ideas come from the history of science, feminist criticism of science, psychology of science, and anthropology of science, Solomon offers a new, social account of scientific rationality.
"A Bradford Book"

Full Description


For the last forty years, two claims have been at the core of disputes about scientific change: that scientists reason rationally and that science is progressive. For most of this time discussions were polarized between philosophers, who defended traditional Enlightenment ideas about rationality and progress, and sociologists, who espoused relativism and constructivism. Recently, creative new ideas going beyond the polarized positions have come from the history of science, feminist criticism of science, psychology of science, and anthropology of science. Addressing the traditional arguments as well as building on these new ideas, Miriam Solomon constructs a new epistemology of science. After discussions of the nature of empirical success and its relation to truth, Solomon offers a new, social account of scientific rationality. She shows that the pursuit of empirical success and truth can be consistent with both dissent and consensus, and that the distinction between dissent and consensus is of little epistemic significance. In building this social epistemology of science, she shows that scientific communities are not merely the locus of distributed expert knowledge and a resource for criticism but also the site of distributed decision making. Throughout, she illustrates her ideas with case studies from late-nineteenth- and twentieth-century physical and life sciences. Replacing the traditional focus on methods and heuristics to be applied by individual scientists, Solomon emphasizes science funding, administration, and policy. One of her goals is to have a positive influence on scientific decision making through practical social recommendations.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            ix
Introduction 1 (14)
Empirical Success 15 (18)
Scientific Success 15 (1)
Empirical Success and Theoretical Success 16 (5)
Defining Empirical Success 21 (12)
Whig Realism 33 (18)
Introduction 33 (1)
Scientific Realists and Antirealists 34 (2)
Kitcher's Recent Defense of Realism 36 (1)
Discussion of Kitcher's Views 37 (1)
Whig Realism 38 (4)
Evidence for Whig Realism 42 (6)
Methodological Import of Whig Realism 48 (3)
Decision Vectors 51 (14)
Decision Vectors and Scientific Rationality 51 (4)
Survey of Decision Vectors 55 (10)
Dissent 65 (32)
Initial Reflections 65 (3)
Evolutionary Biology after Publication of 68 (13)
Origin: An Example of Good Distribution of
Research Effort
Genetics before the Discovery of DNA: An 81 (5)
Example of Less Good Distribution of
Research Effort
The Continental Drift Dispute, 1920-1950 86 (6)
Cancer Virus Research 92 (3)
The ``Invisible Hand of Reason'' 95 (2)
Consensus 97 (20)
Background 97 (3)
Initial Reflections 100(2)
Consensus on Plate Tectonics 102(7)
Consensus on the ``Central Dogma'' 109(5)
Comments 114(3)
Social Empiricism 117(20)
Statement of Social Empiricism 117(3)
Consensus on Plate Tectonics 120(2)
Consensus on the ``Central Dogma'' 122(1)
Consensus on the Variability Hypothesis 123(1)
Consensus on a Surgical Practice 124(2)
Consensus on the Ovulation Theory of 126(1)
Menstruation
Consensus on the Copenhagen Interpretation 127(2)
of Quantum Mechanics
Dissolution of Consensus: Cold Fusion 129(3)
Dissolution of Consensus: Treatment of 132(2)
Peptic Ulcers
A More Social Epistemology 134(3)
Epistemic Fairness 137(16)
Social Empiricism and Naturalized 137(4)
Epistemology
Standpoint Epistemologies of Science 141(2)
Longino's Epistemology of Science 143(2)
Social Empiricism and Feminist Philosophy 145(3)
Conclusions 148(5)
Notes 153(10)
References 163(8)
Index 171