The Unlevel Playing Field : A Documentary History of the African American Experience in Sport (Sport and Society)

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The Unlevel Playing Field : A Documentary History of the African American Experience in Sport (Sport and Society)

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  • 製本 Hardcover:ハードカバー版/ページ数 493 p.
  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780252028205
  • DDC分類 796.08996073

基本説明

Contains more than one hundred documents to trace the participation of blacks in American sport from the days of slavery.

Full Description


This extraordinarily rich compendium of primary sources charts the significant, intertwining history of African Americans and sport. "The Unlevel Playing Field" contains more than one hundred documents - ranging chronologically from a challenge issued by prizefighter Tom Molineaux in the "London Times" in 1810, to a forward-looking interview with Harry Edwards in 2000. Introductions and head-notes provided by David K. Wiggins and Patrick B. Miller place each document in context, shaping an unrivaled narrative. Readers will find dozens of accounts taken from newspapers (both black and white), periodicals, and autobiographies, by literary and sports figures, activists, historians, and others. Frederick Douglass, W. E. B. DuBois, Booker T. Washington, Marcus Garvey, James Weldon Johnson, Richard Wright, A. S. "Doc" Young, Eldredge Cleaver, Nikki Giovanni, John Edgar Wideman, bell hooks, James Baldwin, Roy Wilkins, Henry Louis Gates, and Gerald Early are included here. Tracing the participation of blacks in American sport from the days of slavery, "The Unlevel Playing Field" touches on nearly every major sport and covers the full sweep of America's past. The documents include discussions of the color line in organized baseball during the Jim Crow era and athletics in the American army, as well as portraits of turn-of-the-century figures, like the champion sprint cyclist Marshall "Major" Taylor and boxers George Dixon and Jack Johnson. Other selections tackle the National Tennis Association championship, high school basketball, and debates over participation of black athletes in the 1968 Olympics, and the place of African American women in sport. Countless pioneering and modern-day African American athletes are spotlighted here, from Jackie Robinson, Jesse Owens, Joe Louis, Muhammad Ali, and Althea Gibson, to Michael Jordan, Tiger Woods, and Venus and Serena Williams. A thorough and informative bibliographical essay by Wiggins and Miller concludes the volume.

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
Introduction 1 (6)
1 Antebellum Ordeals: Slavery, sport, and the
Prospects of Freedom
Introduction 7 (24)
1. Tom Molineaux, Black Pioneer in sport 9 (4)
2. Frederick Douglass - "Holiday Times" 13 (4)
3. Francis Fedric - "A Corn shucking" 17 (3)
4. Solomon Northup - "Patting Juba" 20 (3)
5. Benny Dilliard - "Preachin' and Baptizin" 23 (1)
6. William Green - "Becoming a Race Rider" 24 (2)
7. Amos Webber Reports on Thanksgiving 26 (5)
Field Day
2 Striving for success: African American
Athletes in the Early Period of Jim Crow,
1865-1915
Introduction 31 (54)
A The Problem of Exclusion 34 (5)
1. The Color Line in Organized Baseball 34 (2)
2. Weldy Wilberforce Walker - "Why 36 (3)
Discriminate?"
B Health, Recreation, and Sport in the 39 (19)
Postbellum Era
3. W. E. B. Du Bois - "The Problem of 39 (4)
Amusement"
4. Samuel Archer and J. B. Watson on 43 (3)
Football at Southern Black Colleges
5. William Clarence Matthews - "Negro 46 (4)
Foot-ball Players on New England Teams"
6. Thomas J. Clement / "Athletics in the 50 (2)
American Army"
7. Sol White - "Managers Troubles" 52 (3)
8. "Baseball among the Fairer Sex Coming 55 (3)
into Prominence"
C Black Athletic Heroes at the Turn of the 58 (27)
Century
9. Isaac Murphy, the Great Lexington Jockey 58 (5)
10. Marshall "Major" Taylor, Champion 63 (3)
Sprint Cyclist
11. George Dixon's Long Career in Boxing 66 (2)
12. Peter Jackson and the Elusive 68 (3)
Heavyweight Championship
13. William Henry Lewis: Uplifting the Race 71 (3)
14. "Papa Jack": In the Ring and Out 74 (3)
15. Booker T. Washington and Jack Johnson: 77 (2)
Race Men and Respectability
16. W E. B. Du Bois and Jack Johnson: The 79 (6)
Scholar's Pugilist and the Heavyweight
Champ as Folk Hero
3 Parallel Institutions: Black sports between
the World Wars
Introduction 85 (58)
A Leisure and Recreation: Some Considerations 88 (3)
1. Emmett J. Scott - "Leisure Time and the 88 (3)
Colored Citizen"
B Baseball behind the Veil of Segregation: 91 (11)
Negro Teams and Leagues
2. Beauregard F. Moseley - "A Baseball 91 (1)
Appeal"
3. Andrew "Rube" Foster - "Will Colored 92 (1)
Baseball Survive the Acid Test?"
4. Chester L. Washington - "Satchel's Back 93 (6)
in Town"
5. Nat Trammell - "Baseball Classic-East 99 (3)
vs. West"
C An Array of Venues-and Accomplishments 102 (11)
6. The Harlem Rens, "Incomparable Courteers" 102 (3)
7. Gerald Norman - "National American 105 (3)
Tennis Association Championships"
8. J. Elmer Reed on the National Negro 108 (2)
Bowling Association
9. Frank A. Young - Cum Posey: Athlete and 110 (3)
Entrepreneur
D Interscholastic and Collegiate Sport: 113 (17)
Muscular Assimilationism
10. Developing a High School Basketball 113 (2)
Tournament
11. African American Women Make Their Marks 115 (4)
in Sport
12. Women's Basketball and the Shape of 119 (2)
Things to Come: Bennett College vs. the
Philadelphia Tribunes
13. "Nation Eyes Lincoln and Howard Game" 121 (5)
14. Hildrus A. Poindexter Discusses the 126 (4)
Gridiron World: Lincoln, 1922-23
E Cultural Critiques 130 (13)
15. "The Colored Basketball Referee Finally 130 (3)
Arrives"
16. "Tuskegee and 'Force' Rapped for 133 (2)
Tribute to Knute Rockne"
17. Wendell Smith - "A Strange Tribe": On 135 (2)
the Loyalties of Black Fans
18. W. E. B. Du Bois, Allison Davis, and 137 (6)
Langston Hughes on the Excesses of Black
College Sport
4 The Quest for Racial Reform: Affirmation and
Protest in the Sporting Realm, 1920's and 1930's
Introduction 143 (62)
A The "New Negro" in Sports 145 (9)
1. James Weldon Johnson on Sportsmen in 145 (4)
Black Manhattan
2. Robert Hayden - "Free Fantasia: Tiger 149 (2)
Flowers"
3. Paris Noir: Eugene Bullard on the 151 (3)
Expatriate Experience
B. Negotiating the Terms of Black Athletic 154 (12)
Achievement
4. Harry Levette and Herbert Henegan: Two 154 (2)
Considerations of the 1932 Olympic Games
5. "Black Mercuries": The Meaning of Black 156 (2)
Athletic Achievement
6. W Montague Cobb! "Race and Runners" 158 (5)
7. Walter White to Jesse Owens on Race 163 (3)
Pride and the Nazi Olympics
C Reckoning with Joe Louis 166 (11)
8. Marcus Garvey - "The American Negro in 166 (3)
Sport"
9. Richard Wright - "High Tide in Harlem: 169 (5)
Joe Louis as a Symbol of Freedom"
10. Willis P. Armstrong! "A Toast to Joe 174 (3)
Louis"
D. Denouncing Racial Prejudice 177 (9)
11. Concerning the Snubbing of Paul Robeson 177 (3)
12. The Economics of Bigotry: New Orleans 180 (2)
Bars Blacks, Loses a Track Meet
13. Integrationism in Public Recreation: 182 (1)
Denver as a Case study
14. Next Bout-The NAACP vs. Jim Crow: 183 (3)
Charles Hamilton Houston on the Politics of
Sport in Washington, D.C.
E. Strategies of Appeal 186 (19)
15. Edwin Bancroft Henderson - "The Negro 186 (4)
Athlete and Race Prejudice"
16. Roy Wilkins! "That Old Southern Accent" 190 (3)
17. Paul D. Davis - "Students, Teachers 193 (3)
Blast Ban against Lacrosse Player": Harvard
University and the Color Line
18. William A. Brower! "Has Professional 196 (9)
Football Closed the Door?"
5 African American Athletes and Democratic
Principles: Interpreting the Desegregation of
Sport, 1940's and 1950's
Introduction 205 (112)
A. The Meanings of Jackie Robinson 207 (15)
1. Walter White! "Jackie Robinson on Trial" 207 (3)
2. Sam Lacy - "Campy, Jackie as Dodgers" 210 (3)
3. Effa Manley! "Negro Baseball Is at the 213 (2)
Crossroads"
4. Gerald Early - "American Integration, 215 (7)
Black Heroism, and the Meaning of Jackie
Robinson"
B. Sport, Culture, and Community in Black 222 (13)
America
5. E. Franklin Frazier - "Society: Status 222 (1)
without substance"
6. Dan Burley! "The Top Ten of the First 223 (3)
Fifty Years"
7. Fritz Pollard "Explains Reasons for 226 (3)
Having a Negro Hall of Fame"
8. Nelson George on the Harlem Globetrotters 229 (6)
C. The First Rounds of the Second 235 (15)
Reconstruction
9. "New Faces in Pro Football" 235 (2)
10. "Are There Too Many Negroes in 237 (3)
Baseball?"
11. To Desegregate the Golf Courses of 240 (2)
America
12. Rufus Clement - "Racial Integration in 242 (4)
the Field of Sports"
13. "And They Call This a Democracy": 246 (1)
Little League Baseball and the Struggle for
Equality
14. "Weekend at the Penn Relays" 247 (3)
D. Up Close and Personal 250 (21)
15. Adam Buckley Cohen - The Mugging of 250 (4)
Johnny Bright
16. Andrew W. Ramsey - "The Skies Refused 254 (3)
to Fall": Crispus Attucks High School and
Indiana Basketball
17. Is Ralph Dupas Negro or White? 257 (3)
18. Althea Gibson! "What Now?" 260 (3)
19. Alex Haley on Wilma Rudolph - "The 263 (8)
Queen Who Earned Her Crown"
6 Sport, the Civil Rights Movement, and Black 271 (2)
Power, 1960's and 1970's Introduction
A. Speaking Out and Hanging In 273 (12)
1. "Negro Athletes and Civil Rights" 273 (4)
2. Chet Walker! "On the Road in the South, 277 (5)
1960"
3. A. S. "Doc" Young! "Rebellion at Cal" 282 (3)
B. The Politics of Protest: The 1968 Olympic 285 (11)
Games
4. Harry Edwards! "Mounting the Revolt" 285 (4)
5. The Boycott Debate: Tommie Smith on "Why 289 (7)
Negroes Should Boycott" the Olympics, and
Ralph Boston on "Why They Should Not"
C. Culture and Dissent: Boxing 296 (21)
6. James Baldwin! "The Fight: Patterson vs. 296 (7)
Liston" (1963)
7. Eldridge Cleaver! "The Muhammad 303 (3)
Ali-Patterson Fight"
8. Elijah Muhammad Disciplines Muhammad Ali 306 (4)
9. "Muhammad Ali Faces the Nation" 310 (7)
7 Progress, Protest, and Alienation in the
Sports Factory, 1970's and Beyond
Introduction 317 (62)
A. Challenging the Color Line 319 (17)
1. Jesse Jackson on Blacks and the sports 319 (4)
$$$
2. Phil Petrie - "The NFL Sacks the Black 323 (5)
Quarterback"
3. Eddie Robinson on Grambling's First 328 (4)
White Player
4. Lloyd V Hackley - "We Need to Educate 332 (4)
Our Athletes": Higher Education and sports
B. The Limits of Integration 336 (43)
5. Marian E. Washington - "Black Women in 336 (3)
Sports: Can We Get off the Track?"
6. Frank Robinson - "In America's National 339 (3)
Pastime - White Is the Color of the Game
off the Field"
7. Jim Brown! Racism in Context 342 (5)
8. Rafer Johnson! The Decathlete as 347 (8)
Community-Builder
9. David Aldridge - "A Team's True Colors": 355 (6)
Washington Redskins On and Off the Field
10. David Zang - An Interview with Calvin 361 (10)
Hill
11. Margo Jefferson on Arthur Ashe: "On the 371 (8)
Court, in the World"
8 Black Cultural Commentary: Race Relations and
sport at the Turn of the Twenty-first Century
Introduction 379 (64)
A. School and Society: Athletics and Academics 381 (17)
1. Henry Louis Gates Jr.! "Delusions of 381 (2)
Grandeur"
2. Anita DeFrantz - Overcoming Obstacles 383 (4)
3. Welch Suggs - "Left Behind": Title IX 387 (6)
and Black Women Athletes
4. bell hooks! "Dreams of Conquest" 393 (5)
B. The Pros 398 (23)
5. Jackie Joyner-Kersee, a Woman of 398 (3)
Substance
6. Michael Eric Dyson! "Be Like Mike? 401 (6)
Michael Jordan and the Pedagogy of Desire"
7. John Edgar Wideman - "Playing Dennis 407 (4)
Rodman"
8. Nikki Giovanni - "Iverson's Posse" 411 (2)
9. Michael Wilbon on Tiger Woods: "History 413 (4)
in Black and White"
10. William C. Rhoden "NFL's Silent 417 (4)
Majority Afraid to Force Change"
C. Dispatches from the Business Page and Some 421 (22)
Thoughts for the Future
11. Venus Williams's Star Endorsements 421 (2)
12. Kenneth Shropshire - "The Next 423 (5)
Millennium"
13. Gerald Early! "Performance and Reality: 428 (7)
Race, Sports, and the Modern World"
14. Harry Edwards - "The Decline of the 435 (8)
Black Athlete"
Conclusion 443 (4)
Bibliographic Essay and List 447 (32)
Index 479