Spatial Aspects of Crime : Theory and Practice

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Spatial Aspects of Crime : Theory and Practice

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  • 言語 ENG
  • 商品コード 9780205361090
  • DDC分類 364.01

Table of Contents

Preface                                            xvii
Introduction to Spatial Aspects of Crime: 1 (10)
Theory and Practice
Introduction to Criminological Theory 1 (7)
Shifting the Focus to the Criminal Event 2 (2)
How Theories Are Created and Evaluated 4 (2)
The Usefulness of Criminological Theory 6 (2)
An Introduction to the Book 8 (3)
PART I THEORY 11 (162)
Crime and Place 13 (40)
Introduction to Crime and Place 13 (1)
International Differences in Crime 14 (8)
Distribution
Empirical Realities 15 (2)
Explanations 17 (5)
Regional Differences in Crime Distribution 22 (6)
Empirical Realities 22 (4)
Explanations 26 (2)
Differences in Urban and Rural 28 (8)
Distributions of Crime within the United
States
Empirical Realities 28 (5)
Explanations 33 (3)
Intra-City Differences in Distributions 36 (6)
of Crime within the United States
Empirical Realities 36 (2)
Explanations 38 (1)
Focus on: Criminal Revictimization 39 (3)
Spatial Aspects of Fear of Crime and 42 (3)
Public Perception of Crime
Summary 45 (8)
List of Major Research Findings 45 (4)
Implications of Findings for Crime 49 (1)
Mapping and Crime Prevention
Case Study: Hate Crimes and Space 50 (3)
Social Disorganization 53 (27)
Introduction to Social Disorganization 53 (1)
Prehistory of Social Disorganization 54 (2)
Theory: Cartographic School of Criminology
Early Social Disorganization Theories 56 (3)
Park and Burgess: The City (1925) 57 (2)
The Chicago School of Criminology 59 (5)
Shaw and McKay: Juvenile Delinquency in 59 (1)
Urban Areas (1942)
Focus on: Clifford Shaw 60 (1)
Social Disorganization 61 (1)
Focus on: Testing Social Disorganization 62 (2)
Modern Social Disorganization Research 64 (7)
Incivilities and Crime 68 (1)
Focus on: Levels of Social Control 69 (2)
Problems and Criticisms of Theory 71 (2)
Summary 73 (7)
List of Major Research Findings 73 (2)
Implications of Findings for Crime 75 (1)
Mapping and Spatial Analysis
Case Study: Chicago Area Project 76 (4)
Ecological Theories of Crime 80 (40)
Introduction to the Major Schools of 80 (1)
Thought in Ecological Theory
Defensible Space 81 (5)
Major Hypotheses 81 (3)
Major Findings 84 (1)
Problems and Criticisms of Theory 85 (1)
Crime Prevention Through Environmental 86 (11)
Design (CPTED)
Major Hypotheses 86 (3)
Focus on: C. Ray Jeffery 89 (2)
Focus on: Three D's of CPTED 91 (1)
Major Findings 92 (2)
Problems and Criticisms of Theory 94 (3)
Situational Crime Prevention 97 (5)
Major Hypotheses 97 (2)
Major Findings 99 (1)
Problems and Criticisms of Theory 99 (3)
Routine Activity Theory 102 (5)
Major Hypotheses 102 (1)
Major Findings 103 (1)
Problems and Criticisms of Theory 104 (1)
Focus on: Opportunity and Rational 105 (2)
Choice Theories
Crime Pattern Theory 107 (6)
Major Hypotheses 107 (3)
Major Findings 110 (1)
Problems and Criticisms of Theory 111 (1)
Focus on: Paul and Patricia Brantingham 112 (1)
Summary of Major Findings and Implications 113 (7)
List of Major Research Findings 113 (4)
Relating to Ecological Theories of Crime
Implications of Findings for Crime 117 (1)
Mapping and Spatial Analysis
Case Study: Environmental Design in the 118 (2)
Nation's Cities and Architecture
Behavioral Geography and Criminal Behavior 120 (30)
An Introduction to Behavioral Geography 121 (2)
Mental Maps 123 (3)
Research Findings 124 (2)
Awareness Space 126 (4)
Research Findings 128 (2)
Journey to Crime 130 (7)
Research Findings 131 (4)
Criticism of Research 135 (2)
Geographic Profiling 137 (10)
Development of Geographic Profiling 138 (2)
Research Findings 140 (3)
Criticism of Geographic Profiling 143 (1)
Focus on: Geographic Profiling: Hype or 144 (3)
Hope?
Summary 147 (3)
List of Major Research Findings 147 (1)
Implications of Research for Crime 148 (2)
Mapping and Spatial Analysis
Epidemics, Diffusion, and Displacement of 150 (23)
Crimes
Introduction to Epidemics, Diffusion, and 150 (1)
Displacement
Epidemics 151 (8)
Types of Epidemics 153 (1)
Crime and Epidemics 154 (4)
Focus on: Media Coverage of the ``Crack 158 (1)
Cocaine Epidemic''
Displacement 159 (2)
Types of Displacement 160 (1)
Crime and Displacement 160 (1)
Diffusion 161 (6)
Types of Criminal Diffusion 163 (1)
Crime and Diffusion 163 (4)
Summary 167 (6)
List of Major Research Findings 167 (2)
Relating to Epidemics, Diffusion, and
Displacement
Implications of Findings for Crime 169 (1)
Mapping and Spatial Analysis
Case Study: The Place of School Violence 170 (3)
PART II PRACTICE 173 (66)
Mapping in the Criminal Justice System 175 (31)
Introduction 176 (1)
History of Mapping in Criminal Justice 176 (1)
The Development of Mapping in American 177 (2)
Policing
Uses of Crime Mapping Within Policing 179 (10)
Mapping for Patrol Officers 180 (3)
Mapping for Investigations 183 (3)
Mapping for Police Executives 186 (3)
Mapping for Police/Community Relations 189 (1)
Mapping in Courts and Corrections 189 (6)
Future Uses of Gis and Crime Mapping 195 (9)
GIS and GPS 195 (2)
Focus on: NIJ Maps Office 197 (3)
High Definition Mapping 200 (1)
Correctional Facility Mapping 201 (1)
3-D Mapping 201 (1)
Regional Mapping Initiatives 202 (1)
Crime Forecasting 203 (1)
Summary 204 (2)
List of Major Findings 204 (1)
Implications for Crime Mapping and 204 (2)
Spatial Analysis
Major Issues in the Practice of Crime 206 (33)
Mapping
Introduction 206 (1)
Barriers to the Use of Computerized 207 (4)
Mapping
Data Issues 211 (14)
Sources of Data for Crime Maps 221 (4)
Critical Issues Concerning the Use of 225 (1)
Computerized Mapping
Ethical and Legal Issues in Crime Mapping 226 (8)
Privacy v. Public Information 226 (3)
Issues and Guidelines 229 (3)
Sharing Data with Researchers 232 (1)
Liability Issues 233 (1)
Summary 234 (5)
List of Major Findings 234 (1)
Implications for Crime Mapping and 235 (1)
Spatial Analysis
Case Study: Geography of Social Control 236 (3)
PART III CRIME MAPPING WORKBOOK 239 (2)
WORKBOOK SECTION I Getting Started with GIS 241 (44)
Getting Started with Arcview 3.3 243 (7)
Getting Started 243 (3)
Accessing the Textbook Webpage 244 (1)
Obtaining a Copy of Arcview 3.3 or 244 (1)
Crimestat 2.0
Opening Arcview 244 (1)
Opening a View and Adding Themes 245 (1)
Exploring Selected Arcview Tools 246 (3)
Edit Legend 246 (1)
Zoom In and Zoom Out 246 (1)
Identify Features 247 (1)
Measure Tool 248 (1)
Save Project 248 (1)
Review Questions 249 (1)
Further Readings 249 (1)
Understanding Data Sources 250 (8)
Introduction 250 (1)
Different Types of Data 250 (2)
Point Data 251 (1)
Polygon Data 251 (1)
Other Data Types 252 (1)
Sources of Data 252 (2)
Working with Different Data Types 254 (2)
Suggestions for Classifying Data 256 (1)
Project: Contextual Data Analysis 256 (1)
Review Questions 257 (1)
Entering Data 258 (9)
Introduction 258 (1)
Geocoding Data 258 (2)
Practical Geocoding 260 (4)
Preparing the Street File 260 (1)
Match Selection and Setting Geocoding 261 (1)
Preferences
Interactive Address Re-Matching 262 (1)
Attaching X and Y Coordinates 263 (1)
Adding GPS Coordinates 264 (1)
Adding Event Themes 265 (1)
Project: Geocoding Accuracy 265 (1)
Review Questions 265 (1)
Further Readings 266 (1)
Querying and Merging Data 267 (5)
Introduction 267 (1)
Why Query and Merge Data? 267 (1)
Querying Themes 268 (2)
Creating a Query 269 (1)
Converting, Clearing, or Querying the 269 (1)
Query
Merging Themes 270 (1)
Project: Merge and Query Data 271 (1)
Review Questions 271 (1)
Further Readings 271 (1)
Understanding Layouts and Map Design 272 (13)
Introduction 272 (1)
Scale and Map Design 272 (1)
Map Elements 273 (1)
Map Layout 274 (1)
Editing Map Elements 274 (3)
Editing the Legend 274 (1)
Editing the Scale 275 (1)
Other Map Elements 275 (1)
Altering the Size and Location of a Map 276 (1)
Element
Altering the Style of a Compass or 276 (1)
Scale Bar
Adding Other Elements to the Layout 277 (1)
Printing and Exporting a Layout 277 (1)
Exporting a Map 277 (1)
Map Design 278 (4)
Audience and Medium 278 (2)
Map Colors 280 (1)
Symbolization 281 (1)
Labeling 281 (1)
Other Issues in Map Design 282 (1)
Project: Designing Effective Maps 282 (1)
Review Questions 283 (1)
Further Readings 283 (2)
WORKBOOK SECTION II Basic Spatial Analysis 285 (26)
Proximity Analysis 287 (6)
Introduction 287 (1)
What is Proximity Analysis and Why Use it? 287 (2)
Buffer Zone Analysis 289 (1)
Interpretation of Results 290 (1)
Theme Selection 290 (2)
Options for Theme Select Results 291 (1)
Exercises 292 (1)
Review Questions 292 (1)
Spatial Distribution Analysis 293 (12)
Introduction 293 (1)
Mean Center Analysis 294 (3)
Using Crimestat to Conduct Mean Center 294 (3)
Analysis
Interpretation of Results 297 (1)
Standard Deviation Analysis 297 (1)
Performing Standard Deviation Analysis 298 (2)
Interpretation of Results 299 (1)
Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis 300 (1)
Performing Moran's ``I'' and Geary's ``C'' 301 (1)
Interpretation of Moran's ``I'' 302 (1)
Interpretation of Geary's ``C'' 302 (1)
Exercises 302 (1)
Review Questions 303 (1)
Further Readings 303 (2)
Distance Analysis 305 (6)
Introduction 305 (1)
Nearest Neighbor Index 305 (2)
Performing Nearest Neighbor Analysis 307 (1)
Interpreting Output 307 (1)
K-Order Nearest Neighbor Analysis 307 (2)
Analyzing the Output 308 (1)
Interpretation of Results 308 (1)
Exercises 309 (1)
Review Questions 309 (1)
Further Readings 309 (2)
WORKBOOK SECTION III Advanced Spatial Analysis 311 (26)
Hot Spot Analysis 313 (12)
Introduction 313 (2)
Hot Spot Methods 315 (1)
Fuzzy Mode 316 (2)
Performing a Fuzzy Mode Analysis 317 (1)
Interpretation of Output 318 (1)
Nearest Neighbor Hierarchical Clustering 318 (3)
(Nnh)
Performing Nnh Analysis 319 (1)
Interpreting the Results 320 (1)
Risk Adjusted Nearest Neighbor Analysis 321 (1)
(Rnnh)
Performing Rnnh Analysis 321 (1)
Interpreting the Results 322 (1)
Exercises 322 (1)
Review Questions 323 (1)
Further Readings 324 (1)
Density Mapping 325 (8)
Introduction 325 (1)
Single Kernel Density Interpolation 326 (3)
Interpreting the Results 329 (1)
Dual Kernel Density Interpolation 329 (2)
Performing a Dual Kernel Density 329 (2)
Interpolation
Interpreting the Results 331 (1)
Exercises 331 (1)
Review Questions 331 (1)
Further Readings 332 (1)
Spatial Dispersion Mapping 333 (4)
Introduction 333 (1)
Performing Spatial Dispersion Mapping 334 (1)
Using Dual Kernel Density Interpolation
Interpretation of Results 335 (1)
Exercises 335 (1)
Review Questions 336 (1)
Further Readings 336 (1)
Bibliography 337 (18)
Index 355