A comprehensive anthology of writings 1500-1800 by explorers, colonists, and native Americans for use in courses on colonial or early American literature.
Early American Writings brings together a wide range of writings from the era of colonization of the Americas through the period of confederation in North America and the formation of the new United States of America. The anthology includes materials representing cultures indigenous to the Americas as well as writings by British, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French, Swedish, German, African, and African American peoples in America during the fifteenth through the eighteenth centuries. With more than 170 writers included, the collection represents the works known and admired in the writers' own day, illustrates the diversity of interests and peoples depicted in those writings, and demonstrates the range of cross-cultural references early American readers experienced. The breadth of the collection provides readers with a fuller understanding of the backdrop for what is known as "American" culture today, in all its diversity. Early American Writings includes several original translations and features more poetry than any other anthology in the field. Each section covers a different period of colonization and is introduced by extensive commentary. All selections have been carefully annotated to help students place the writings in their cultural and regional contexts. Ideal for courses in early/colonial American literature and culture, colonial American studies, American studies, and American history, Early American Writings gives students an unprecedented look into the diverse and fascinating culture of early America.
PrefaceAcknowledgmentsPenobscotCorn MotherAlgonquianA Story about Great RabbitIroquoisThe Creation of the WorldIroquois, or the Confederacy of the Five NationsSenecaThe Origin of StoriesCreekOrigins of the PeopleSalishThe BeginningGros VentresThe Creation of the WorldAcomaEmergence into the Upper World2. EUROPEANS' NEW WORLD: THE FIRST CENTURYSouthern ExperiencesChristopher Columbus (1451-1506)from The Diario of Christopher Columbus's First Voyage to America, 1492-1493Letter of Columbus, Describing the Results of His First VoyageAmerigo Vespucci (1452?-1512)Letter to Piero Soderini, Gonfaloniere of the Republic of Florence, 1504Bartolome de Las Casas (1474-1566)from A Short Account of the Destruction of the IndiesPrologue / [Preface] / from New SpainAlvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca (1490?-1577?)from The Relation of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vacafrom Chapter 7: The Character of the Country / from Chapter 8: We Go from Aute / from Chapter 10: The Assault from the Indians / from Chapter 11: Of What Befel Lope de Oviedo with the Indians / from Chapter 21: Our Cure of Some of the Afflicted / from Chapter 24: Customs of the Indians of That Country / from Chapter 27: We Moved Away and Were Well Received / from Chapter 32: The Indians Give Us the Hearts of Deer /from Chapter 33: We See Traces of Christians / from Chapter 34: Of Sending for the ChristiansPedro de Castaneda (1510-1570?)from Castaneda's Narrativefrom Part Ifrom Preface / Chapter 2 / Chapter 3 / from Chapter 9from Part IIChapter 3Jean de Lery (1534-1613)from History of a Voyage to the Land of Brazil, Otherwise Called Americafrom Preface / Chapter 16Rene Goulaine de Laudonniere (1529-1574)from A Notable Historie Containing Foure Voyages Made by Certaine French Captaines unto Floridafrom Preface/ from The Historie of the First VoyageGarcilaso de la Vega, el Inca (1539-1616)from The Florida of the IncaBook IChapter 3 / Chapter 4Book IIChapter 1 / Chapter 2 / Chapter 3 / Chapter 4from Royal Commentaries of the Incas and General History of Peru, Part IBook IChapter 6 / Chapter 15 / Chapter 16 / Chapter 17 / Chapter 18 / from Chapter 19Northern ExperiencesJacques Cartier (1491-1557)from The First RelationSamuel de Champlain (1570?-1635)from Voyages and Discoveries in New FranceTo the King / Preface / [Of the Hurons]Pierre-Esprit Radisson (1636-1710?)from The Relation of my Voyage, being in Bondage in the Lands of the Irokoits, which was the next yeare after my coming into Canada, in the yeare 1651, the 24th day of MayYucatec MayaThe First Seating of the Land OwnersAztec/MexicanHistory of the Miraculous Apparition of the Virgin of Guadalupe in 1531HopiThe Coming of the Spanish and the Pueblo RevoltJoseph Jeremy, MicmacThe Floating IslandYuchiCreation of the WhitesHandsome Lake, SenecaHow America Was DiscoveredLenape and MahicanArrival of the DutchFlatheadCreation of the Red and White RacesSouthern ExperiencesArthur Barlowe (flourished 1584-1585)from The First Voyage Made to the Coasts of AmericaJohn Smith (1580-1631)from Proceedings of the English Colonie in Virginia [Powhatan's Speech to Captain Smith]from A Description of New Englandfrom The Generall Historie of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Islesfrom The Third Bookefrom Chapter 1 / from Chapter 2 / from Chapter 3 / from Chapter 4Edward Maria Wingfield (1560?-1613?)A Discourse of VirginiaLetters from VirginiaJohn Rolfe: Letter to Sir Thomas Dale (1614)Richard Frethorne: Letters to His Parents (1623)William Fitzhugh: Letter to Dr. Ralph Smith (1686)John Clayton: Letter to the Royal Society of London (1688)Richard Ligon (1634-1703)from A True and Exact History of the Island of BarbadosConflict in the Caribbean and in VirginiaAnonymous: Great News from the Barbadoes (1676)Nathaniel Bacon: Manifesto Concerning the Present Troubles in Virginia (1676)John Cotton of Queen's Creek: Bacon's Epitaph and Upon the Death of G: BaconNorthern ExperiencesWilliam Bradford (1590-1657)from Of Plymouth PlantationThe First Bookfrom Chapter 1: [Why the Separatists Left England] / from Chapter 2: [Of Their Departure into Holland] / from Chapter 5: [Showing What Means They Used for Preparation to this Weighty Voyage] / from Chapter 9: [Of Their Voyage] / from Chapter 10: [Showing How They Sought out a Place of Habitation]The Second Bookfrom Chapter 28: Anno Dom: 1637 [The Pequot War] / from Chapter 32: Anno Dom: 1642 [Wickedness Breaks Forth] / from Chapter 33: Anno Dom: 1643 [The Life and Death of Elder Brewster]John Winthrop (1588-1649)A Model of Christian Charityfrom The Journal of John WinthropThomas Morton (1579?-1647)from New English Canaanfrom The Second Bookfrom Chapter 1: The General Survey of the Countryfrom The Third Book [The Incident at Merry Mount]from Chapter 14: of the Revels of New Canaan / from Chapter 15: of a Great Monster Supposed to be at Ma-re Mount; and the Preparation Made to Destroy it / from Chapter 16: How the Nine Worthies Put Mine Host of Ma-re Mount into the Enchanted Castle at Plymouth and Terrified Him with the Monster BriareusRoger Williams (1603-1683)from A Key into the Language of Americafrom Chapter 21: of Religion, the Soul, etc.from The Bloody Tenet of Persecution, for Cause of Conscience, in a Conference between Truth and PeaceA Letter to the Town of ProvidenceJohn Eliot (1604-1690)from Indian Dialogues, for Their Instruction in that great Service of ChristDialogue I: [A Dialogue between Pium bukhou and His Unconverted Relatives]Letter to the Honorable Council Sitting at Boston (1675)Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672)from The Tenth Muse, Lately Sprung Up in Americafrom The Four Ages of Manfrom Several PoemsContemplations / Before the Birth of One of Her Children / In Memory of My Dear Grand-child Elizabeth Bradstreet, Who Deceased August, 1665 Being a Year and Half OldHere Follows Some Verses upon the Burning of Our House, July 10th, 1666. Copied out of a Loose PaperLetters from New EnglandEmmanuel Altham: Letter to Sir Edward Altham (1623)[John] Pond: Letter to His Parents (1630)Edward Taylor (1642?-1729)from ChristographiaMeditation 44 / from Sermon IIIfrom Gods DeterminationsThe Joy of Church Fellowship Rightly AttendedUpon a Spider Catching a FlyUpon a Wasp Child with ColdHuswiferyUpon Wedlock, and Death of ChildrenThe Ebb and FlowA Funerall Poem upon the Death of My Ever Endeared, and Tender Wife Mrs. Elizabeth Taylor, Who Fell Asleep in Christ the 7th Day of July at Night about Two Hours after Sun Setting 1689 and in the 39 Yeare of Her LifeMary White Rowlandson (1637?-1711)Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary RowlandsonJohn Williams (1664-1729)from The Redeemed Captive Returning to ZionA Collection of Poems from New Englandfrom The Whole Booke of Psalmes Faithfully Translated into English MetrePsalme 1 / Psalme 19 / Psalme 23 / Psalme 137from The New England Primer (1683)Alphabet / The Dutiful Child's Promises / Verses / The Death of John RogersJohn Cotton (1584-1652): A Thankful Acknowledgment of God's ProvidenceNathaniel Ward (1578-1652): [Mercury shew'd Apollo, Bartas Book]Benjamin Woodbridge (1622-1684): Upon the Author; by a known Friend / Upon the TOMB of the most Reverend Mr. John Cotton, Late Teacher of the Church of Boston in New-EnglandJohn Josselyn (1608?-1700?): Verses Made Sometime since upon the Picture of a Young and Handsome Gypsie, Not Improperly Transferred upon the Indian SquaSor Juana Ines de la Cruz (1648?-1695)from Response to the Most Illustrious Poetess Sor Filotea de la Cruzfrom Romances[Prologue to the Reader] / [In Reply to a Gentleman from Peru, Who Sent Her Clay Vessels While Suggesting She Would Better Be a Man] / [While by Grace I Am Inspired]Gaspar Perez de Villagra (1555?-1620)from The History of New MexicoCanto 1 / from Canto 29 / from Canto 30 / from Canto 31 / from Canto 32Pueblo Conflict in New Spain (1680-1692)Antonio de Otermin: Letter on the Pueblo Revolt of 1680Diego de Vargas: from Letter on the Reconquest of New Mexico (1692)Fray Carlos Jose Delgado (1677-post-1750)Report Made by Rev. Father Fray Carlos Delgado to Our Rev. Father Ximeno....the Year 1750Eusebio Francisco Kino (1644-1711)from The Celestial Favors of JesusBook IChapter 3: My Arrival at These Missions of Sonora, and My First Entry into this Pimeria, with the Father Visitor, Manuel Gonzales / Chapter 4: Expedition to San Ygnacio de Caborica, San Joseph de Los Himiris, and Nuestra Seora de Los Remedios / Chapter 5: First Opposition Experienced in This New Conversion / Chapter 6: Second Opposition and Discord Sown in PimeriaFrancisco Palou (1723-1789)from Life of Junpero Serrafrom Chapter 22: The Expeditions Arrive at the Port of Monterey--The Mission and Presidio of San Carlos Are Founded / from Chapter 58: The Exemplary Death of the Venerable Father JuniperoJose Longinos Martnez (?-1803)from The Journal of Jose Longinos Martinezfrom Part Two: Journey through Old California, Cape San Lucas to Mission San Miguel / from Part Three: Journey through New California, San Diego to MontereyJean de Brebeuf (1593-1649)from Relation of What Occurred in the Country of the Hurons in the Year 1636[Dedicatory Letter to Paul Le Jeune]from Part 1: Chapter 1 / Chapter 3Marie Guyart Martin, Marie de l'Incarnation (1599-1672)Letters to Her Son[The Deaths of Daniel, Brebeuf, and Gabriel Lalemant] / [A New Language to Learn] / [The End of the Huron Mission] / [The Coming of Bishop Laval] / [New France a Crown Colony] / [An Answer to Criticism]Marie Madeleine Hachard, Sister Saint Stanislaus (1704-1760)Letters Written at New Orleans to Her FatherOctober 27, 1727 / January 1, 1728 / April 24, 1728Louis Vivier (1714-1756)Letters Written among the IllinoisJune 8, 1750November 17, 1750Antoine-Simon Le Page du Pratz (1695?-1775?)from The History of Louisianafrom Book 4Chapter 1: The Origin of the Americans / from Chapter 2, Section 1: [Of the Natives of Louisiana] / from Chapter 3, Section 2: [Of Their Language, Government, Religion, Ceremonies, and Feasts]The Staple ColoniesEdward "Ned" Ward (1667-1731)A Trip to JamaicaJohn Lawson (1670?-1711?)from A New Voyage to Carolinafrom A Description to North-Carolina / An Account of the Indians of North-CarolinaCharles Woodmason (1720?-post-1776)To Benjamin Franklin, Esq., of Philadelphia, on his Experiments and Discoveries in ElectricityIndicoJames Grainger (1721?-1766)from The Sugar-Cane. A Poem. In Four Books. With NotesBook IV: The Genius of AfricaRobert Beverley (1673-1722)from History and Present State of Virginia (1705)from Book 1Chapter 2: Containing an Account of the first Settlement of Chesapeak Bayfrom Book 3: Of the Indians, Their Religion, Laws, and Customs, in War and Peacefrom Chapter 1: Of the Persons of the Indians, and their Dress / Chapter 5: Of the Travelling, Reception, and Entertainment of the Indians / Chapter 6: Of the Learning, and Languages of the IndiansWilliam Byrd II (1674-1744)from The History of the Dividing Line Run in the Year 1728Letters to Charles Boyle, Earl of OrreryLetter to John Boyle, Baron Boyle of BroghillLetter to John Perceval, Earl of EgmontPatrick Tailfer, Hugh Anderson, David Douglas (flourished 1741)from A True and Historical Narrative of the Colony of Georgia in AmericaHenry Timberlake (1730?-1765)from The Memoirs of Lieut. Henry TimberlakeBritain's Middle Atlantic: Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New YorkGeorge Alsop (1636-post-1673)from A Character of the Province of Mary-LandThe Preface to the Reader / Chapter 1 [Of the Situation and Plenty of the Province of Mary-Land] / Chapter 3 [The Necessariness of Servitude Proved, with the Common Usage of Servants in Mary-Land, Together with Their Priviledges] / Chapter 4 [Upon Trafique, and What Merchandizing Commodities this Province Affords]Ebenezer Cook (1667-1733)The Sot-Weed Factor; or, a Voyage to Maryland, &c.Richard Lewis (1700-1734)A Journey from Patapsko to Annapolis, April 4, 1730Food for CriticksDr. Alexander Hamilton (1712-1756)from ItinerariumWilliam Penn (1644-1718)Letter from William Penn to the Committee of the Free Society of TradersGeorge Keith (1639-1716)An Exhortation and Caution to Friends concerning Buying or Keeping of NegroesElizabeth Ashbridge (1713-1755)Some Account of the Early Part of the Life of Elizabeth AshbridgeJohn Woolman (1720-1772)from Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroesfrom The Journal of John WoolmanCadwallader Colden (1688-1776)from The History of the Five Indian NationsNew EnglandCotton Mather (1663-1728)from Magnalia Christi AmericanaGaleacius Secundus: The Life of William Bradford, Esq., Governor of Plymoth ColonyThe Negro ChristianizedSamuel Sewall (1652-1730)from The Diary of Samuel SewallThe Selling of Joseph. A MemorialMy Verses upon the New CenturyJohn Saffin (1632-1710)A Brief and Candid AnswerSarah Kemble Knight (1666-1727)The Journal of Sarah Kemble KnightJonathan Edwards (1703-1758)Personal NarrativeSinners in the Hands of an Angry Godfrom The Distinguishing Marks of a Work of the SpiritCharles Chauncy (1705-1787)from Enthusiasm Described and Caution'd Againstfrom Seasonable Thoughts on the State of ReligionJohannes Megapolensis, Jr. (1603?-1669)A Short Account of the Mohawk IndiansAdriaen Van Der Donck (1620-1655)from A Description of the New Netherlandsfrom Of the Manners and Peculiar Customs of the Natives of the New NetherlandsHenricus Selyns (1636-1701)Bridal Torch for Rev. AEgidius LuyckTo My Friend Captain Gerard DouwEpitaph for Peter StuyvesantMaria Van Cortlandt Van Rennselaer (1645-1689)Letters to Rygart van RensselaerDecember 1675? / September? 1680 / November 12, 1684Francis Daniel Pastorius (1651-1720)Petition of the Germantown Quakers, "Reasons Why We Are Against the Traffic of Menbody"from Positive Information from America, Concerning the Country of Pennsylvaniafrom The Beehive[When I Solidly Do Ponder / If any be pleased to walk into my poor Garden, I heartily bid him or her welcome, thus / [When One or Other Rambles] / [As Often as Some where before My Feet] / [Extract the Quint-essence] / [Delight in Books from Evening]Christoph Saur (1695-1758)from A Dialogue between a Newcomer and a Settler in PennsylvaniaGottlieb Mittelberger (1715-1779?)from Journey to Pennsylvania[Preface] / from Part I: The Crossing to Pennsylvania / from Part II: Description of the Province of PennsylvaniaBenjamin Franklin (1706-1790)Silence Dogood, No. 1Silence Dogood, No. 2The Speech of Miss Polly BakerAn Edict by the King of PrussiaSpeech in the Convention at the Conclusion of Its DeliberationsSidi Mehemet Ibrahim on the Slave Tradefrom AutobiographyPart One/ Part TwoA Collection of PoemsWilliam Dawson (1704-1752): To Silvia, on Approach of Winter / AnacreoniticJane Colman Turell (1708-1735): An Invitation into the Country, in Imitation of Horace, Left Only in a Rough Copy / [Lines on Childbirth] / [Lines on the Deathof Mother]Martha Wadsworth Brewster (1710-post-1759): [Prefatory Poem to the Reader] / An Essay on the Four Ages of Man, Resembling the Four Seasons of the YearBridget Richardson Fletcher (1726-1770): Hymn XXXVI. The Greatest Dignity of a Woman, Christ Being Born of One / Hymn LXX. The Duty of Man and WifeJohn Leacock (1729-1802): Song, The First of May, to St. TammanyLucy Terry (1730-1821): Bars Fight (c. 1746)Thomas Godfrey (1736-1763): A Dithyrambic on Wine / A Night-PieceMilcah Martha Hill Moore (1740-1829): The Female Patriots. Addressed to the Daughters of Liberty in America, 1768Nathaniel Evans (1742-1767): Hymn to May / An Ode, Attempted in the Manner of Horace, to My Ingenious Friend, Mr. Thomas Godfrey / Elegy, to the Memory of My Beloved Friend, Mr. Thomas Godfrey, Who died near Wilmington, North-Carolina, August 3d, 1763. / To Benjamin Franklin, Esq; L.L.D, Occasioned by Hearing Him Play on the HarmonicaAnnis Boudinot Stockton (1736-1801)To the Visitant, from a Circle of LadiesBy a Lady in America to Her Husband in EnglandA Sudden Production of Mrs. Stockton's in One of Those Many Anxious Nights in Which She Watched with Mr. Stockton in His Last IllnessA Poetical Epistle, Addressed by a Lady of New Jersey to Her Niece, upon Her Marriage, in This CityAddressed to General Washington, in the Year 1777, after the Battles of Trenton and PrincetonTo the President of the United StatesThe Vision, an Ode to WashingtonThomas Paine (1737-1809)from Common SenseThe CrisisWilliam Bartram (1739-1823)from Travels through North and South Carolina, Georgia, East and West FloridaJupiter Hammon (1711-1806?)An Evening Thought. Salvation by Christ, with Penetential CriesAn Address to Miss Phillis Wheatly, Ethiopian PoetessA Poem for Children with Thoughts on DeathAn Address to the Negroes in the State of New-YorkBriton Hammon (flourished 1760)Narrative of the Uncommon Sufferings and Surprizing Deliverance of Briton HammonSamson Occom (1723-1792)A Short Narrative of My LifeA Sermon Preached by Samson OccomJoseph Johnson (1751-1776)Letter from J--h J--n, one of the Mohegan Tribe of Indians, to his Countryman, Moses Paul, under Sentence of Death in New-Haven GoalDedication to a Life of the SpiritPhillis Wheatley (1754?-1784)from Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and MoralTo Maecenas / To the University of Cambridge, in New-England / On Being Brought from Africa to America / On the Death of the Rev. Mr. George Whitefield / Thoughts on the Works of Providence / On Recollection / To the Right Honorable William, Earl of Dartmouth, His Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for North America &c. / To S. M. a Young African Painter, on Seeing His WorksTo His Excellency General WashingtonLetters to Obour TannerMay 19, 1772 / July 19, 1772 / October 30, 1773Letter to Samson OccomFebruary 11, 1774Letters to Selina Hastings, Countess of HuntingtonOctober 25, 1770 / June 27, 1773Letter to William Legge, Second Earl of DartmouthOctober 10, 1772Letter to David WoosterOctober 18, 1773Letter to Samuel HopkinsFebruary 9, 1774Letter to John ThorntonOctober 30, 1774Prince Hall (1735?-1807)Petition to the Honorable Council and House of Representatives, for the State of Massachusetts-Bay, in General Court Assembled January 13, 1777A Charge, Delivered to the Brethren of the African Lodge on the 25th of June, 1792A Charge, Delivered to the African Lodge, June 24, 1797, at MenotomyOlaudah Equiano (1745-1797)from The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written by HimselfChapter 1 / Chapter 2John Marrant (1755-1791)A Narrative of the Lord's Wonderful Dealings with John Marrant, a Black10. CONFEDERATION AND THE FORMATION OF A BRITISH AMERICAN REPUBLICThomas Jefferson (1743-1826)from Notes on the State of Virginiafrom Query 6: A Notice of the Mines, and Other Subterraneous Riches / from Query 11: A Description of the Indians Established in That State / from Query 14: Laws / Query 17: The Different Religions Received into That State / Query 18: The Particular Customs and Manners That May Happen to Be Received in That StateLetter to Francois Jean, Marquis de ChastelluxSeptember 2, 1785Letter to Jean Marie Antoine Nicholas Caritat, Marquis de CondorcetAugust 30, 1791The Declaration of IndependenceThe Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States of America, Adopted in Congress, July 4, 1776British Loyalists in British North AmericaWilliam Franklin (1730-1813): Speech before the New Jersey Assembly, January 13, 1775Hannah Griffitts (1727-1817): On Reading a Few Paragraphs in "The Crisis," April 1777Jacob Bailey (1731-1808): The Factious Demagogue, a PortraitJoseph Stansbury (1740-1809): To CordeliaJonathan Odell (1737-1818): from The American TimesJ. Hector St. Jean de Crevecoeur (1735-1813)On the Situation, Feelings, and Pleasures of an American FarmerHistory of Andrew the HebrideanA Singular Punishmentfrom Letters from an American Farmerfrom Letter 12: Distresses of a Frontier ManThree Federalist PapersThe Federalist No. 6 (Hamilton)The Federalist No. 10 (Madison)The Federalist No. 51 (Madison)Mercy Otis Warren (1728-1814)Letter to the Independent Chronicle, on ChesterfieldObservations on the New Constitution, and on the Federal and State Conventionsfrom Poems, Dramatic and MiscellaneousTo a Young Lady / To Mrs. Montague, Author of "Observations on the Genius and Writings of Shakespeare"John Adams (1735-1826)A Dissertation on the Canon and the Feudal Law, No. 4Letter to Mercy Otis WarrenApril 16, 1776Letter to Thomas JeffersonJuly 29, 1791Abigail Adams (1744-1818)from The Travel Diaries of Abigail Adams[Boston to Deal] / [London to Plymouth]Letter to John AdamsLetter to Mercy Otis WarrenTimothy Dwight (1752-1817)from Greenfield HillPart II: The Flourishing VillageJudith Sargent Murray (1751-1820)On the Equality of the SexesDesultory Thoughts upon the Utility of Encouraging a Degree of Self-Complacency, Especially in Female BosomsObservations on Female AbilitiesPart III / Part IVJoel Barlow (1754-1812)from The Vision of Columbus[Dedication to King Louis XVI of France] / Introduction / Book I / Book IIPhilip Freneau (1752-1832)Account of the Island of Santa Cruz, Containing an original Poem on the Beauties of that IslandThe Prophecy of King TammanyLines Written at the Pallisades, near Port-Royal, in the Island of Jamaica--September, 1784The Island Field NegroSpeech of the Indian Head of the Ship DelawareOn Deborah GannetWilliam Hill Brown (1765-1793)Harriot, Or, the Domestick Reconciliation. Sketched from the LifeSeductionHannah Webster Foster (1758-1840)Picture of a LibertineSusannah Haswell Rowson (1762-1824)The Happy PairThe IngrateMaternal SorrowCharles Brockden Brown (1771-1810)The Man at Home, No. XIA Lesson on SensibilityNoah Webster (1758-1843)from Effects of Slavery, on Morals and IndustryBenjamin Banneker (1731-1806)Copy of a Letter from Benjamin Banneker to the Secretary of State, with His AnswerREMAINEDThe MahicansSpeech of the Mahicans to Gov. William Burnet of New York, 1722Stung SerpentSpeech to Antoine Le Page du Pratz, 1723CanasategoSpeech at the Treaty of Lancaster, 1744GachradodowSpeech at the Treaty of Lancaster, 1744The ChickasawsSpeech of the Chickasaws to the Governors of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, 1771John KillibuckSpeech to the Governors of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, 1771CornplanterSpeech in the Council at Philadelphia, 1790Index