高度実践看護:統合アプローチ(第5版)<br>Advanced Practice Nursing : An Integrative Approach (5TH)

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高度実践看護:統合アプローチ(第5版)
Advanced Practice Nursing : An Integrative Approach (5TH)

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Full Description


Addressing all major advanced practice nursing competencies, roles, and issues, Advanced Practice Nursing: An Integrative Approach, 5th Edition provides a clear, comprehensive, and current introduction to APN today. It applies APN core competencies to the major APN roles - including the burgeoning Nurse Practitioner role - and covers topics ranging from the evolution of APN to evidence-based practice, leadership, ethical decision-making, and health policy. This edition includes a new chapter on the international development of APN, new and enhanced illustrations, and a colorful new reader-friendly format for improved readability. From internationally known APN experts Ann Hamric, Charlene Hanson, Mary Fran Tracy, and Eileen O'Grady, along with a host of internationally recognized APN contributors, Advanced Practice Nursing introduces you to APN and helps you identify an APN role, develop key competencies for that role, and succeed as an APN.

Table of Contents

  Part I HISTORICAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS
OF ADVANCED PRACTICE NURSING
1 A Brief History of Advanced Practice 1 (26)
Nursing in the United States
Anne Z. Cockerham
Arlene W. Keeling
Nurse Anesthetists 2 (5)
Anesthesia at Mayo Clinic 3 (1)
Wartime Opportunities 3 (3)
Education and Reimbursement 6 (1)
Nurse-Midwives 7 (3)
Nurse-Midwifery Education and 7 (1)
Organization
Move Toward Natural Childbirth 8 (2)
Clinical Nurse Specialists 10 (4)
Coronary Care Unit: A New Era of 11 (1)
Specialization
Defining the Clinical Nurse 12 (2)
Specialist's Role
Clinical Nurse Specialist 14 (1)
Certification, Organization, and
Prescriptive Authority
Nurse Practitioners 14 (7)
Early Public Health Nurses' Role in 14 (1)
Direct Care
Primary Care in Appalachia---the 15 (2)
Frontier Nursing Service
Pediatric Nurse Practitioners Pave the 17 (1)
Way
National Reports and Federal Funding 17 (1)
Controversy and Support for the Nurse 18 (1)
Practitioners' Role
Growth in Nurse Practitioner Numbers 19 (1)
and Expanded Scope of Practice
Neonatal and Acute Care Nurse 20 (1)
Practitioners
American Association of Colleges of 21 (1)
Nursing and the Doctor of Nursing
Practice
Conclusion 21 (6)
2 Conceptualizations of Advanced Practice 27 (40)
Nursing
Judith A. Spross
Nature, Purposes, and Components of 29 (1)
Conceptual Models
Conceptualizations of Advanced Practice 30 (2)
Nursing: Problems and Imperatives
Conceptualizations of Advanced Practice 32 (11)
Nursing Roles: Organizational Perspectives
Consensus Model for Advanced Practice 34 (2)
Registered Nurse Regulation
American Nurses Association 36 (1)
American Association of Colleges of 37 (1)
Nursing
National Organization of Nurse 38 (1)
Practitioner Faculties
National Association of Clinical Nurse 38 (2)
Specialists
American Association of Nurse 40 (1)
Anesthetists and American College of
Nurse-Midwives
International Organizations and 41 (1)
Conceptualizations of Advanced Practice
Nursing
Section Summary: Implications for 42 (1)
Advanced Practice Nursing
Conceptualizations
Conceptualizations of the Nature of 43 (12)
Advanced Practice Nursing
Hamric's Integrative Model of Advanced 44 (1)
Practice Nursing
Fenton's and Brykczynski's Expert 45 (1)
Practice Domains of the Clinical Nurse
Specialist and Nurse Practitioner
Calkin's Model of Advanced Nursing 46 (3)
Practice
Brown's Framework for Advanced Practice 49 (1)
Nursing
Strong Memorial Hospital's Model of 50 (1)
Advanced Practice Nursing
Oberle and Allen: The Nature of 51 (1)
Advanced Practice Nursing
Shuler's Model of Nurse Practitioner 52 (1)
Practice
Ball and Cox: Restoring Patients to 53 (1)
Health--- A Theory of Legitimate
Influence
Section Summary: Implications for 53 (2)
Advanced Practice Nursing
Conceptualizations
Models Useful for Advanced Practice 55 (4)
Nurses in Their Practice
American Association of Critical-Care 55 (2)
Nurses' Synergy Model
Advanced Practice Nursing Transitional 57 (1)
Care Models
Dunphy and Winland-Brown's Circle of 57 (2)
Caring: A Transformative, Collaborative
Model
Recommendations and Future Directions 59 (2)
Conceptualizations of Advanced Practice 59 (1)
Nursing
Consensus Building Around Advanced 59 (1)
Practice Nursing
Consensus on Key Elements of Practice 60 (1)
Doctorate Curricula
Research on Advanced Practice Nurses 61 (1)
and Their Contributions to Patient,
Team, and Systems Outcomes
Conclusion 61 (6)
3 A Definition of Advanced Practice Nursing 67 (19)
Ann B. Hamric
Distinguishing Between Specialization and 68 (1)
Advanced Practice Nursing
Distinguishing Between Advanced Nursing 69 (1)
Practice and Advanced Practice Nursing
Defining Advanced Practice Nursing 70 (1)
Core Definition of Advanced Practice 70 (5)
Nursing
Conceptual Definition 71 (1)
Primary Criteria 71 (4)
Seven Core Competencies of Advanced 75 (3)
Practice Nursing
Direct Clinical Practice: The Central 75 (1)
Competency
Additional Advanced Practice Nurse Core 76 (1)
Competencies
Scope of Practice 77 (1)
Differentiating Advanced Practice Roles: 78 (2)
Operational Definitions of Advanced
Practice Nursing
Workforce Data 78 (1)
Four Established Advanced Practice 79 (1)
Nursing Roles
Critical Elements in Managing Advanced 80 (1)
Practice Nursing Environments
Implications of the Definition of 81 (3)
Advanced Practice Nursing
Implications for Advanced Practice 82 (1)
Nursing Education
Implications for Regulation and 82 (1)
Credentialing
Implications for Research 82 (1)
Implications for Practice Environments 83 (1)
Conclusion 84 (2)
4 Role Development of the Advanced Practice 86 (26)
Nurse
Karen A. Brykczynski
Perspectives on Advanced Practice Nurse 86 (1)
Role Development
Novice to Expert Skill Acquisition Model 87 (2)
Role Concepts and Role Development Issues 89 (4)
Role Ambiguity 90 (1)
Role Incongruity 90 (1)
Role Conflict 90 (3)
Role Transitions 93 (13)
Advanced Practice Nurse Role 93 (2)
Acquisition in Graduate School
Strategies to Facilitate Role 95 (2)
Acquisition
Advanced Practice Nursing Role 97 (4)
Implementation at Work
Strategies to Facilitate Role 101(2)
Implementation
International Experiences with Advanced 103(1)
Practice Nursing Role Development and
Implementation: Lessons Learned and a
Proposed Model for Success
Facilitators and Barriers in the Work 103(2)
Setting
Continued Advanced Practice Nurse Role 105(1)
Evolution
Evaluation of Role Development 106(1)
Conclusion 106(6)
5 Evolving and Innovative Opportunities for 112(21)
Advanced Practice Nursing
Jeanne Salyer
Michelle R. Frazelle
Patterns in the Evolution of Specialty to 112(16)
Advanced Practice Nursing
Innovative Practice Opportunities: 115(2)
Stage I
Specialties in Transition: Stage II 117(4)
Emerging Advanced Practice Nursing 121(4)
Specialties: Stage III
Established Advanced Practice Nursing 125(3)
Roles: Stage IV
Conclusion 128(5)
6 International Development of Advanced 133
Practice Nursing
Joyce Pulcini
Definitions 136(1)
International Evolution of the Advanced 136(3)
Practice Nurse
Nurse Practitioner 136(2)
Nurse Midwifery 138(1)
Nurse Anesthetist 138(1)
Clinical Nurse Specialist 138(1)
Advanced Practice Nurse Issues Wordwide 139(4)
Titling 139(1)
Power Differential Between Nursing and 139(1)
Medicine
Lack of Physician Support for Advanced 140(1)
Practice Nurse Roles
Level of Educational Preparation 140(1)
Valuing Clinical Practice Expertise 140(1)
Infusing Evidence into Role Development 141(1)
Cultural Norms 141(1)
Health Care Delivery System Values 141(1)
Advanced practice Nurse Payment 142(1)
Advanced Practice Nurse Regulations and 142(1)
Standards
High-Quality, Interdisciplinary, 142(1)
Advanced Practice Nurse Education
Looking to the Future: What Do We Have to 143
Learn from Each Other?
Part II COMPETENCIES OF ADVANCED PRACTICE 7 (352)
NURSING
7 Direct Clinical Practice 147(36)
Mary Fran Tracy
Direct Care Activities 148(3)
Direct Care and Indirect Care 148(2)
Six Characteristics of Direct Clinical 150(1)
Care Provided by Advanced Practice
Nurses
Use of a Holistic Perspective 151(2)
Holism Described 151(1)
Holism and Health Assessment 151(1)
Nursing Model or Medical Model 151(2)
Formation of Therapeutic Partnerships 153(3)
with Patients
Shared Decision Making 153(1)
Cultural Influences on Partnerships 154(1)
Communication with Patients 155(1)
Therapeutic Partnerships with 155(1)
Noncommunicative Patients
Expert Clinical Performance 156(6)
Clinical Thinking 156(3)
Ethical Reasoning 159(1)
Skillful Performance 160(2)
Use of Reflective Practice 162(2)
Use of Evidence as a Guide to Practice 164(2)
Evidence-Based Practice 164(1)
Theory-Based Practice 165(1)
Diverse Approaches to Health and Illness 166(6)
Management
Interpersonal Interventions 166(1)
Therapeutic Interventions 166(2)
Individualized Interventions 168(1)
Complementary and Alternative Medicine 169(1)
Clinical Prevention 170(2)
Management of Complex Situations 172(4)
Highlights of Advanced Practice Nursing 174
Care of a Complex Patient
Helping Patients Manage Chronic 172(3)
Illnesses
Direct Care and Information Management 175(1)
Conclusion 176(7)
8 Guidance and Coaching 183(30)
Judith A. Spross
Rhonda L. Babine
Imperatives for Advanced Practice Nurse 184(1)
Guidance and Coaching
Burden of Chronic Illness 184(1)
Health Care Policy Initiatives 184(1)
Interprofessional Teams 185(1)
Definitions: Teaching, Guidance, and 185(2)
Coaching
Patient Education 185(1)
Guidance 185(2)
Advanced Practice Nurse Guidance and 187(6)
Coaching Competency: Theoretical and
Empirical Perspectives
Transitions in Health and Illness 187(1)
Transtheoretical Model of Behavior 188(2)
Change
Evidence That Advanced Practice Nurses 190(3)
Guide and Coach
Models of Advanced Practice Nurse 193(12)
Guidance and Coaching
Assumptions 193(1)
Overview of the Model 193(1)
Self-Reflection 193(1)
Clinical and Technical Competence 193(2)
Interpersonal Competence 195(4)
CONTENTS Conflict Negotiation and 199(3)
Resolution
Individual and Contextual Factors That 202(1)
Influence Advanced Practice Nurse
Guidance and Coaching
Coaching "Difficult" Patients 202(1)
Guidance and Coaching Competency and 203(2)
Outcomes
Development of Advanced Practices Nurse's 205(2)
Coaching Competence
Graduate Nursing Education: Influence 205(1)
of Faculty and Preceptors
Strategies for Developing and Applying 206(1)
the Coaching Competency
Professional Coaching and Health Care 207(2)
Advanced Practice Nurse Guidance and 208(1)
Coaching the Coach Certification
Conclusion 209(4)
9 Consultation 213(24)
Julie Vosit-Steller
Allison B. Morse
Consultation and Advanced Practice Nursing 214(1)
Defining Consultation 215(1)
Distinguishing Consultation from 215(1)
Comanagement, Referral, and
Collaboration
Background 216(2)
Types of Consultation 216(1)
Consultation and Specific Advanced 217(1)
Practice Nurse Roles
Model of Advanced Practice Nursing 218(4)
Consultation
Ecologic Field of the Consultation 219(1)
Process
Purposes and Outcomes 219(1)
Consultation Process for Formal 220(2)
Consultation
Common Advanced Practice Nurse 222(4)
Consultation Situations
Advanced Practice Nurse Consultation in 222(1)
Practice
Advanced Practice Nurse-Physician 223(1)
Consultation
Advanced Practice Nurse-Staff Nurse 224(2)
Consultation
Consultation in the International 226(1)
Community
Mechanisms to Facilitate Consultation 226(2)
Issues in Advanced Practice Nurse 228(5)
Consultation
Developing Consultation Skills in 228(1)
Advanced Practice Nurse Students
Using Technology to Provide, 229(1)
Consultation
Documentation and Legal Considerations 230(1)
Discontinuing the Consultation Process 231(1)
Developing the Practice of Other Nurses 231(1)
Consultation Practice Over Time 232(1)
Billing for Consultation 233(1)
Evaluation of the Consultation Competency 233(1)
Conclusion 234(3)
10 Evidence-Based Practice 237(29)
Mikel Gray
Evidence and Current Best Evidence: 241(1)
Historical Perspective
Steps of the Evidence-Based Process 242(17)
Step 1 Formulate a Measurable Clinical 242(2)
Question
Step 2 Search the Literature for 244(4)
Relevant Studies
Step 3 Critically Appraise and Extract 248(9)
Evidence
Step 4 Implement Useful Findings in 257(2)
Clinical Decision Making
From Policy to Practice: Tips for 259(3)
Achieving Meaningful Changes in Practice
Based on Current Best Evidence
Stakeholder Engagement 261(1)
Organizational Support 261(1)
Clinical Leadership Support 261(1)
Evidence-Based Practice Innovation 262(1)
Feedback
Future Perspectives 262(1)
Conclusion 262(4)
11 Leadership 266(33)
Mary Fran Tracy
Charlene M. Hanson
Context in Which Advanced Practice Nurses 267(1)
Exercise Leadership Competency
Health Care System Transformation 267(1)
Redesign of Health Professional 268(1)
Education
Leadership Domains of Advanced Practice 268(4)
Nurses
Clinical Leadership 269(1)
Professional Leadership 269(1)
Systems Leadership 270(2)
Health Policy Leadership 272(1)
Leadership: Definitions, Models, and 272(6)
Concepts
Definitions of Leadership 272(1)
Leadership Models That Lead to 273(2)
Transformation
Leadership Models That Address Systems 275(1)
Change and Innovation
Concepts Related to Change 276(2)
Defining Characteristics of the Advanced 278(3)
Practice Nurse Leadership Competency
Mentoring 278(1)
Empowering Others 279(1)
Innovation 280(1)
Political Activism 280(1)
Attributes of Effective Advanced Practice 281(4)
Nurse Leaders
Vision 281(1)
Timing 281(1)
Self-Confidence and Risk Taking 282(1)
Expert Communication and Relationship 282(1)
Building
Boundary Management 283(1)
Respect for Cultural Diversity 283(1)
Global Awareness 283(1)
Balance in Personal and Professional 284(1)
Life
Developing Skills as Advanced Practice 285(2)
Nurse Leaders
Factors Influencing Leadership 285(2)
Development
Developing Leadership in the Health 287(2)
Policy Arena
Becoming an Astute Political Activist: 287(2)
The Growth Process
Obstacles to Leadership Development and 289(3)
Effective Leadership
Professional and System Obstacles 289(1)
Dysfunctional Leadership Styles 289(1)
Horizontal Violence 290(2)
Strategies for Implementing The 292(2)
Leadership Competency
Developing a Leadership Portfolio 292(1)
Promoting Collaboration-Among Advanced 292(1)
Practice Nursing Groups
Motivating and Empowering Others 293(1)
Networking 293(1)
Engaging Others in Planning and 293(1)
Implementing Change
Institutional Assessment Regarding 293(1)
Readiness for Change
Followship 293(1)
Conclusion 294(5)
12 Collaboration 299(29)
Charlene M. Hanson
Michael Carter
Definition of Collaboration 299(5)
Collaboration: What It Is Not 300(2)
Domains of Collaboration in Advanced 301(1)
Practice Nursing
Interprofessional Collaboration 302(2)
Characteristics of Effective Collaboration 304(3)
Clinical Competence and Accountability 305(1)
Common Purpose 306(1)
Interpersonal Competence and effective 306(1)
Communication
Trust and Mutual Respect 306(1)
Recognizing and Valuing Diverse, 307(1)
Complementary Culture, Knowledge, and
Skills
Humor 307(1)
Impact of Collaboration on Patients and 307(5)
Clinicians
Evidence That Collaboration Works 308(1)
Research Supporting Interprofessional 308(3)
Collaboration
Effects of Failure to Collaborate 311(1)
Imperatives for Collaboration 312(1)
Ethical Imperative to Collaborate 312(1)
Institutional Imperative to Collaborate 312(1)
Research Imperative to Study 313(1)
Collaboration
Context of Collaboration in Contemporary 313(4)
Health Care
Incentives and Opportunities for 314(1)
Collaboration
Barriers to Collaboration 314(3)
Processes Associated with Effective 317(1)
Collaboration
Recurring Interactions 317(1)
Effective Conflict Negotiation and 318(1)
Resolution Skills
Bridging and Appreciative Inquiry 318(1)
Partnering and Team Building 318(1)
Implementing Collaboration 318(2)
Assessment of Personal, Environmental, 319(1)
and Global Factors
Strategies for Successful Collaboration 320(3)
Individual Strategies 320(1)
Team Strategies 320(1)
Organizational Strategies 321(2)
Conclusion 323(5)
13 Ethical Decision Making 328(31)
Ann B. Hamric
Sarah A. Delgado
Characteristics of Ethical Dilemmas in 328(2)
Nursing
Communication Problems 329(1)
Interdisciplinary Conflict 329(1)
Multiple Commitments 330(1)
Ethical Issues Affecting Advanced 330(3)
Practice Nurses
Primary Care Issues 330(1)
Acute and Chronic Care 330(1)
Societal Issues 331(1)
Access to Resources and issues of 332(1)
justice
Legal issues 333(1)
Ethical Decision Making Competency of 333(16)
Advanced Practice Nurses
Phases of Core Competency Development 333(16)
Evaluation of the Ethical Decision Making 349(1)
Competency
Barriers to Ethical Practice and 350(4)
Potential Solutions
Barriers Internal to the Advanced 350(1)
Practice Nurse
Interprofessional Barriers 351(1)
Patient-Provider Barriers 351(1)
Organizational and Environmental 352(2)
Barriers
Conclusion 354(5)
Part III ADVANCED PRACTICE ROLES: THE
OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF ADVANCED PRACTICE
NURSING
14 The Clinical Nurse Specialist 359(37)
Garrett K. Chan
Cathy C. Cartwright
Overview and Definitions of the Clinical 359(3)
Nurse Specialist
Clinical Nurse Specialist Practice: 362(20)
Spheres of Influence and Advanced
Practice Nursing Competencies
Direct Clinical Practice 369(3)
Guidance and Coaching 372(3)
Consultation 375(1)
Evidence-Based Practice 376(2)
Leadership 378(1)
Collaboration 379(1)
Ethical Decision Making 380(2)
Current Marketplace Forces and Concerns 382(8)
Scope of Practice and Delegated 383(1)
Authority
Institute of Medicine Future of Nursing 383(3)
Report
NCSBN Consensus Model for Advanced 386(1)
Practice Registered Nurse Regulation
and Implications for the Clinical Nurse
Specialist
Regional and Local Variations in 386(1)
Clinical Nurse Specialist Regulation
Availability and Standardization of 387(1)
Educational Curricula for Clinical
Nurse Specialists
National Certification for Clinical 388(1)
Nurse Specialists
Variability in Individual Clinical 388(1)
Nurse Specialist Practices and
Prescriptive Authority
Understanding the Similarities and 388(2)
Differences Between Clinical Nurse
Specialists and Nurse Practitioners
Future Directions 390(1)
Conclusion 391(5)
15 The Primary Care Nurse Practitioner 396(33)
Joanne M. Pohl
Tsui-Sui Annie Kao
Historical Roots of Primary Care in the 396(1)
United States
Federal Government and Primary Care 397(1)
Health Resources and Services 397(1)
Administration
Health Professional Shortage Areas 398(1)
Designation
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid 398(1)
Innovation
Primary Care Workforce Composition 398(2)
The Doctor of Nursing Practice 400(1)
Nurse Practitioner Role and Competencies 400(16)
in Primary Care
Nurse Practitioners in Primary Care: A 400(3)
Role in Advanced Practice Nursing
Advanced Practice Nurse Core 403(1)
Competencies
Coaching and Guidance 404(1)
Consultation 404(1)
Collaboration 405(1)
Nurse Practitioner Core Competencies 405(11)
Models of Primary Care and the Nurse 416(4)
Practitioner Role in Current Primary Care
in the United States
Nurse Practitioners as a Disruptive 417(1)
Innovation
Patient-Centered Medical Home 418(1)
Nurse-Managed Health Centers 418(1)
School-Based Centers 419(1)
Convenient Care Clinics 419(1)
Care for Homeless and Vulnerable 419(1)
Populations
Veterans Administration 420(1)
Aging Populations and Primary Care 420(1)
Care Transitions and Primary Care 421(1)
Quality of Care: Evidence-Based Care 421(2)
Role of Electronic Health Records in 423(1)
Primary Care
Nurse Practitioners: Challenges and 423(1)
Opportunities
Regulatory Issues and Removing Barriers 423(1)
Conclusion 424(5)
16 The Acute Care Nurse Practitioner 429(27)
Ruth M. Kleinpell
Marilyn Hravnak
Kathy S. Magdic
Jane Guttendorf
Emergence of the Acute Care Nurse 430(1)
Practitioner Role
Shaping the Scope of Practice for the 431(4)
Acute Care Nurse Practitioner
National Level (Professional 431(2)
Organizations)
State Level (Government) 433(1)
Institutional Level 433(1)
Service-Related Level 434(1)
Individual Level 435(1)
Competencies of the Acute Care Nurse 435(5)
Practitioner Role
Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Specialty 435(1)
Competencies
Advanced Practice Nurse Central 436(3)
Competencies of Adult Gerontology Acute
Care Nurse Practitioners
Advanced Practice Nurse Core 439(1)
Competencies of Adult Gerontology Acute
Care Nurse Practitioners
Profiles of the Adult Gerontology Acute 440(5)
Care Nurse Practitioner Role
Comparison with Other Advanced Practice 443(1)
Nurse and Physician Assistant Roles
Adult Gerontology Acute Care Nurse 444(1)
Practitioners and Physician Hospitalists
Outcome Studies Related to Acute Care 445(1)
Nurse Practitioner Practice
Implementation of the Adult Gerontology 445(2)
Acute Care Nurse Practitioner Role in
Other Clinical Practice Settings
Bone Marrow Transplantation Services 445(2)
Diagnostic and Interventional Services 447(1)
Heart Failure Services 447(1)
Orthopedic Services 447(1)
Rapid Response Team 447(1)
Preparation of Adult Gerontology Acute 447(1)
Care Nurse Practitioners
Reimbursement for Acute Care Nurse 448(3)
Practitioners
Medicare Reimbursement for Acute Care 450(1)
Nurse Practitioners
Critical Care Reimbursement for Acute 451(1)
Care Nurse Practitioners
Challenges Specific to the Adult 451(1)
Gerontology Acute Care Nurse Practitioner
Role
Conclusion 452(4)
17 The Certified Nurse-Midwife 456(23)
Maureen A. Kelley
Jane Mashburn
Historical Perspective 458(1)
The Nurse-Midwifery Profession in the 458(4)
United States Today
Education and Accreditation 458(1)
Certification and Certification 459(1)
Maintenance
Reentry to Practice 459(1)
Regulation, Reimbursement, and 459(2)
Credentialing
American College of Nurse-Midwives 461(1)
Implementing Advanced Practice Nursing 462(7)
Competencies
Overview of Advanced Practice Nurse and 462(1)
Certified Nurse-Midwife Competencies
Direct Clinical Practice 463(2)
Guidance and Coaching of Patients, 465(1)
Families, and Other Care Providers
Consultation 466(1)
Collaboration 466(1)
Evidence-Based Practice 467(1)
Leadership 468(1)
Ethical Decision Making 468(1)
Advocacy 469(1)
Current Practice of Nurse-Midwifery 469(1)
Scope of Practice 469(1)
Practice Settings 469(1)
Certified Nurse-Midwife Practice Summary 470(1)
Exemplars of Nurse-Midwifery Practice 470(4)
Professional Issues 474(1)
Image 474(1)
Work Life 474(1)
Professional Liability 475(1)
Quality and Safety 475(1)
Conclusion 475(4)
18 The Certified Registered Nurse 479(26)
Anesthetist
Margaret Faut Callahan
Michael J. Kremer
Brief History Of Certified Registered 479(2)
Nurse Anesthetist Education and Practice
Role Differentiation Between Certified 481(1)
Registered Nurse Anesthetists and
Anesthesiologists
Profile of the Certified Registered Nurse 481(5)
Anesthetist
Scope and Standards of Practice 482(1)
Education, Credentialing, and 483(1)
Certification
Programs of Study 484(1)
Nurse Anesthesia Educational Funding 485(1)
Practice Doctorate 485(1)
Certification 486(1)
Institutional Credentialing 486(1)
Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist 486(5)
Practice
Workforce Issues 486(2)
Practice Settings 488(1)
Access to Health Care 488(1)
American Association of Nurse 489(1)
Anesthetists
International Practice Opportunities 490(1)
Role Development and Measures of Clinical 491(10)
Competence
Direct Clinical Practice 491(2)
Collaboration 493(1)
Guidance and Coaching 494(1)
Consultation 494(1)
Evidence-Based Practice 494(1)
Accountability and Ethics 495(1)
Leadership 495(1)
Exemplars 496(1)
Reimbursement 496(4)
Continued Challenges 500(1)
Conclusion 501(4)
Part IV CRITICAL ELEMENTS IN MANAGING
ADVANCED PRACTICE NURSING ENVIRONMENTS
19 Business Planning and Reimbursement 505(33)
Mechanisms
Charlene M. Hanson
Sally D. Bennett
Principles of Practice Management 506(3)
Designing and Delivering Care to 506(1)
Patients
Entrepeneurs and Intrapreneurs 507(1)
Inventory of Skills 507(2)
Direct Processes of Care 509(3)
Direct Patient Care 509(1)
Mission, Vision, and Values 509(2)
Clinical Relationships with Other Staff 511(1)
and Providers
Indirect Processes of Care 512(5)
Business Relationships 512(1)
Day-to-Day Administrative Support 513(1)
Program and Business Structure 513(2)
External Regulatory Bodies 515(1)
Evaluation Processes That Ensure 515(1)
Quality and Safety
Diagnostic Services 516(1)
Process Resources 517(3)
Facility, Equipment, and Supplies 517(2)
Managing Prescriptive Authority and 519(1)
Sample Medications
Business Plan Summary 520(1)
Health Care Payment Mechanisms 520(13)
Documentation of Services 521(2)
Medical and Nursing Classification 523(4)
Systems
Reimbursement for Advanced Practice 527(5)
Nurses
Value-Based Purchasing 532(1)
Evaluation of Patient Care Services 533(1)
Evolving Business Opportunities for 533(2)
Advanced Practice Nurses
Managed Care Organizations 533(1)
Accountable Care Organizations 533(1)
The Medical Home 534(1)
Nurse-Managed Health Centers 534(1)
Other Opportunities 534(1)
Conclusion 535(3)
20 Marketing and Negotiation 538(19)
Charlene M. Hanson
Barbara C. Phillips
Health Care Marketing: Yesterday and Today 538(1)
Two Types of Advanced Practice Nurse 539(2)
Marketing
Definition of Marketing 539(1)
Marketing Frameworks and Concepts 539(2)
Preparing for an Advanced Practice Nurse 541(2)
Position
Resume Versus the Curriculum Vitae 541(1)
Query Letter 542(1)
Interview Process 542(1)
Health Care as a Business 543(3)
Preparing to Market Advanced Practice 543(2)
Nurse Services
Features Versus Benefits of Marketing 545(1)
Marketing Avenues, Media, and Technology 546(4)
Offline Marketing 546(2)
Online Marketing 548(1)
Understanding Legal and Ethical 549(1)
Considerations
Marketing Plan 550(1)
Return on Investment 551(1)
Negotiation and Contracting 551(4)
Importance of Contracts 551(1)
Independent Contractor Contract 552(1)
Employment Contract 552(2)
Collaborative Practice Agreement 554(1)
Contract Negotiation 554(1)
Conclusion 555(2)
21 Understanding Regulatory, Legal, and 557(22)
Credentialing Requirements
Charlene M. Hanson
Current Issues 557(2)
Titling of Advanced Practice Registered 558(1)
Nurses
Consensus Model for Advanced Practice 558(1)
Registered Nurse Regulation: Licensure,
Accreditation, Certification, and
Education
Implementation of Consensus Model 559(1)
Regulation
Definitions Associated with the 559(1)
Credentialing and Regulation of Aprns
State Licensure and Recognition 559(2)
Prescriptive Authority 560(1)
Drug Enforcement Administration Number 561(1)
Scope of Practice for Advanced Practice 561(2)
Nurses
Benchmarks of Advanced Practice Nursing 562(1)
and Education
Components of Advanced Practice Nurse 563(4)
Credentialing and Regulation
Elements of Regulation 563(1)
Credentialing 563(4)
Issues Affecting APRN Credentialing and 567(7)
Regulation
Collaborative Practice Arrangements 568(1)
Identifier Numbers 568(1)
Reimbursement 569(2)
Risk Management, Malpractice, and 571(1)
Negligence
Privacy Issues 572(1)
Telehealth and Telepractice 572(1)
Safety and Cost Containment Initiatives 573(1)
Influencing the Regulatory Process 574(1)
Novice or Any Advanced Practice Nurses 574(1)
Experienced or Expert Advanced Practice 574(1)
Nurses
Current Practice Climate for Advanced 574(1)
Practice Nurses
Need for True Collaboration 575(1)
Moving Out of the Shadows and Into the 575(1)
Light
Visioning For Advanced Practice 575(1)
Future Regulatory Challenges Facing 575(1)
Advanced Practice Nurses
Conclusion 576(3)
22 Health Policy Issues in Changing 579(28)
Environments
Eileen T. O'Grady
Jean Johnson
Policy Process 580(9)
Policy: Historic Core Function in 580(1)
Nursing
Overview of the Health Policy Process: 580(3)
Politics Versus Policy
Policy Frameworks and Key Concepts 583(1)
Federal Budget Cycle 584(2)
Policy Formulation: How a Bill Becomes 586(2)
Law
Policy Modification 588(1)
Current and Emerging Health Policy Issues 589(6)
Relevant to Advanced Practice Nurses
Context for Framing Advanced Practice 589(2)
Nurse Policy Issues: Cost, Quality, and
Access
Policy Initiatives in Health Reform 591(2)
Emerging Advanced Practice Nurse Policy 593(2)
Issues
Political Competence in the Policy Arena 595(7)
Health Policymaking: A Requisite Skill 595(1)
for Individual Advanced Practice Nurses
Political Competence 595(5)
Moving Advanced Practice Nurses Forward 600(2)
in Health Policy
Advanced Practice Nurse Policy Research 602(1)
Agenda
Conclusion 602(5)
23 Integrative Review of Outcomes and 607(38)
Performance Improvement Research on
Advanced Practice Nursing
Ruth Kleinpell
Anne W. Alexandrov
Review of Terms 608(4)
Conceptual Models of Care Delivery Impact 612(2)
Models for Evaluating Outcomes Achieved 612(1)
by Advanced Practice Nurses
Outcomes Evaluation Model 612(2)
Nurse Practitioner Role Effectiveness 614(1)
Model
Evidence to Date 614(4)
Role Description Studies 616(1)
Role Perception and Acceptance Studies 616(1)
Care Delivery Process Studies 617(1)
Brooten's Advanced Practice Nurse 618(1)
Transitional Care Model
Process as Outcome Studies 619(1)
Performance (Process) Improvement 619(1)
Activities
Disease Management Activities 620(1)
Outcomes Management Activities 620(3)
Outcomes Research 623(11)
Studies Comparing Advanced Practice 623(9)
Nurse and Physician and Other Provider
Outcomes
Studies Comparing Advanced Practice 632(1)
Nurse and Physician Productivity
Studies Comparing Advanced Practice 633(1)
Nurse and Usual Practice Outcomes
Studies Using Noncomparison Groups 633(1)
Summary of Advanced Practice Nursing 634(2)
Outcomes Research
Conclusion 636(9)
24 Using Health Care Information Technology 645
to Evaluate and Improve Performance and
Patient Outcomes
Vicky A. Mahn-DiNicola
Regulatory Reporting Initiatives That 646(5)
Drive Performance Improvement
Relevance of Regulatory Reporting to 651(1)
Advanced Practice Nursing Outcomes
Foundational Competencies in Managing 652(16)
Health Information Technology
TIGER Competencies for Use of Health 652(2)
Care Information Technology
Coding Taxonomies and Classification 654(9)
Systems
Next-Generation Quality Metrics: 663(1)
eMeasures
Meaningful Use of health Information 664(1)
Technology and Impact on Advanced
Practice Nursing
Health Information Exchanges 665(3)
Foundational Competencies in Quality 668(3)
Improvement
Continuous Quality Improvement 669(2)
Frameworks
Organizational Structures and Cultures 671(1)
That Optimize Performance Improvement
Strategies for Designing Quality 671(12)
Improvement and Outcome Evaluation Plans
for Advanced Practice Nursing
Phases of Preparing a Plan for Outcome 671(12)
Evaluation
Conclusion 683